Journal Contents

Am Jour Ophthalmol
Br J Ophthalmol
Can J Ophthalmol
J Cat Ref Surg
Curr Eye Res
Eur J Ophthalmol
J Glaucoma
JAMA Ophthalmol
Graefes Ophthalmol
Indian J Ophthalmol
Int Ophthalmol Clin
Invest Ophth Vis Sci
Jpn J Ophthalmol
Korean J Ophthal
J Neuroophthalmol
Ophthalmic Epidemiol
Ophthalmic Genet
Ophthal Plast Rec Surg
Ophthalmic Res
Surv Ophthalmol
Ophthalmology Review Journal
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol[JOUR] Established 1995
1. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 27. [Epub ahead of print]

Outcomes of phacoemulsification in patients with chronic ocular graft-versus-host

Saboo US(1), Amparo F, Shikari H, Jurkunas UV, Dana R.

Author information: 
(1)Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Department of Ophthalmology, Cornea
Service, Harvard Medical School, 243 Charles Street, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of
phacoemulsification in patients with ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).
METHODS: The occurrence of cataracts, cataract surgery, and its outcomes were
analyzed in the medical records of 229 patients (458 eyes) with ocular GVHD.
Outcome measures included pre- and postoperative corrected distance visual acuity
(CDVA) and the rate of postoperative complications.
RESULTS: Of the 458 eyes evaluated, 58 were pseudophakic; from the 400 phakic
eyes, 238 (59 %) presented with cataracts and 62 (26 %) underwent cataract
surgery. Analysis of postoperative complications and visual outcomes at 1 month
was performed in 51 eyes in which detailed surgical and immediate postoperative
records were available. Preoperatively, the mean CDVA was 0.67 ± 0.57 LogMAR
(Snellen 20/93), improving postoperatively to 0.17 ± 0.18 (Snellen 20/29) at
1 month (P < 0.0001), and to 0.13 ± 0.14 (Snellen 20/26) by the final follow-up
visit (P < 0.0001). Postoperative complications included corneal epithelial
defects (8 %), filamentary keratitis (6 %), worsening of corneal epitheliopathy
(16 %), posterior capsular opacification (18 %), and cystoid macular edema (4 %).
A corrected distance visual acuity of 20/30 or better was achieved in 87 % of the
eyes; suboptimal CDVA improvement was attributable to severe ocular surface
disease, pre-existing advanced glaucoma, and prior macular surgery.
CONCLUSIONS: Phacoemulsification in patients with chronic ocular GVHD is a safe
and efficacious procedure resulting in significant visual improvement. Overall,
postoperative adverse events responded well to timely management.

PMID: 25619668   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

2. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 27. [Epub ahead of print]

The natural history of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: a multi-center series
of untreated Asian patients.

Cheung CM(1), Yang E, Lee WK, Lee GK, Mathur R, Cheng J, Wong D, Wong TY, Lai TY.

Author information: 
(1)Medical Retina Service, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore,

PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the long-term natural history of polypoidal
choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in untreated patients.
METHODS: This is a retrospective observational case series. Patients with
symptomatic PCV who did not receive any treatment for at least 12 months were
included from the records of three ophthalmic clinics in Asia. The medical
records and imaging data were reviewed. Visual outcomes at month 12 and at last
follow-up were analyzed. The influence of demographics and presenting features on
visual outcome was analyzed.
RESULTS: A total of 32 eyes (32 patients) were included in this analysis. The
mean follow-up was 59.9 months (range, 18-119 months), the mean age was
65.7 years and 21 (65.6 %) patients were male. The mean presenting logMAR visual 
acuity was 0.79 (Standard deviation [SD] 0.49). The center of the fovea was
involved by the PCV complex in 25 eyes (78.1 %). The mean greatest linear
dimension (GLD) of the PCV complex was 2584 μm (SD 880). Twenty-three eyes
(71.9 %) had a cluster-of-grapes configuration on indocyanine green angiography. 
Leakage of fluorescein angiography was present in 29 eyes (90.6 %). The mean
logMAR vision deteriorated from 0.79 at baseline to 0.88 at month 12 (p = 0.11), 
and further to 1.14 (p = 0.003) at the last follow-up. The proportion of eyes
that improved, remained unchanged and worsened was 21.9 %, 31.3 % and 46.9 %,
respectively, at month 12; and 28.1 %, 9.4 % and 62.5 %, respectively, at last
follow-up. The proportion of eyes with logMAR vision worse than 1.0 was 28.1 % at
presentation, and increased to 31.3 % at month 12 and further to 53.1 % at last
follow-up. Reasons for poor vision were due to retinal, subretinal or vitreous
hemorrhage, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy and scarring. None of
the presenting features were found to significantly influence visual outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: Half of eyes presenting with symptomatic PCV had a relatively benign
course without treatment and some even had vision improvement. However, in the
remaining eyes, vision deteriorated significantly, mainly due to hemorrhage and
scarring. There may be subtypes of PCV with divergent natural history.

PMID: 25619667   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

3. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 27. [Epub ahead of print]

Conjunctival amyloidosis - clinical and histopathologic features.

Suesskind D(1), Ziemssen F, Rohrbach JM.

Author information: 
(1)Department of Ophthalmology, Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Schleichstr.
12-16, 72076, Tuebingen, Germany,

PURPOSE: Conjunctival amyloidosis is a rare disorder. It is often clinically not 
suspected or diagnosed. This study intended to demonstrate the clinical and
histopathologic features of this infrequent disease, including an
immunohistochemical search for amyloidotic proteins.
METHODS: Retrospective case series of the clinical and histopathologic
characteristics of six patients with conjunctival amyloidosis.
Immunohistochemical analysis with respect to possible amyloidotic components of
the conjunctival deposits was performed.
RESULTS: The diagnosis of amyloidosis was not suspected in all six cases
presenting with an amelanotic conjunctival lesion. In three patients a
conjunctival tumor of unknown origin, in one case each a papillomatous alteration
of the conjunctiva, a conjunctival granulomatous inflammation, and a lymphoma
were assumed respectively. The diagnosis of amyloidosis was made by
histopathology. Immunohistochemical examination found lambda and kappa light
chains as well as prealbumin within the amyloid deposits in one of the six
CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of amyloidosis has to be kept in mind in cases with an
unclear conjunctival mass or inflammatory process. Only a tissue biopsy is able
to prove the diagnosis. A possible underlying systemic disease has to be ruled

PMID: 25619666   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

4. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 27. [Epub ahead of print]

Relationship between choroidal blood flow velocity and choroidal thickness during
systemic corticosteroid therapy for Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease.

Hirooka K(1), Saito W, Namba K, Takemoto Y, Mizuuchi K, Uno T, Tagawa Y,
Hashimoto Y, Ishida S.

Author information: 
(1)Department of Ophthalmology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, 
Sapporo, Japan.

PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between circulation hemodynamics and
morphology in the choroid during systemic corticosteroid therapy for patients
with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease.
METHODS: This retrospective case series includes 18 eyes of nine patients with
VKH disease (two men and seven women; average age, 40.8 years) who received
systemic corticosteroid therapy. Laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) and
enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) were performed
before treatment and at 1 week and 1 and 3 months after treatment. The average
values of the mean blur rate (MBR) at the macula and the central choroidal
thickness (CCT) were compared at each stage.
RESULTS: The changing rates of the average MBR significantly increased at all
examinations after the start of treatment compared with the pre-treatment value
with resolution of serous retinal detachment (SRD) (P = 0.0002 for all). The CCT 
decreased significantly at all examinations after the start of treatment compared
with the pre-treatment value (P = 0.0002 for all). Changes in MBR and CCT during 
the 3-month follow-up period correlated significantly (R = -0.5913, P = 0.0097). 
The best-corrected visual acuity at pre-treatment correlated significantly with
the changing rate of the MBR from 0 to 3 months (R = 0.5944, P = 0.0093) but not 
with CCT.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that circulatory disturbances and increased
thickness of the choroid relate to the pathogenesis of VKH disease with link
mutually. LSFG is useful as an index for evaluating the choroiditis activity of
VKH disease as well as EDI-OCT.

PMID: 25619665   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

5. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 24. [Epub ahead of print]

Comparison of visual and anatomical outcomes of half-fluence and half-dose
photodynamic therapy in eyes with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy.

Kim YK(1), Ryoo NK, Woo SJ, Park KH.

Author information: 
(1)Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine,
Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, #300, Gumi-dong, Bundang-gu,
Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-707, South Korea.

PURPOSE: To compare visual and anatomical outcomes of half-fluence (HF) and
half-dose (HD) photodynamic therapy (PDT) in chronic central serous
chorioretinopathy (CSC). Particular focus was given to photoreceptor recovery
rate following treatment.
METHODS: Retrospective review of 52 chronic CSC patients who underwent HF- or
HD-PDT (26 patients per group). Best-corrected visual acuity and spectral-domain 
optical coherence tomography findings were compared between groups.
RESULTS: Average follow-up for HF- and HD-PDT was 20.7 ± 7.2 and
22.3 ± 6.1 months respectively. Both groups had significant visual acuity
improvements, as well as central foveal and subfoveal choroidal thickness
reductions. Measured parameters were not significantly different between groups
at any time point examined. Complete photoreceptor recovery, defined as a
continuous ellipsoid zone with a discernible interdigitation zone, was observed
at 12 months in 19 (73 %) and 14 patients (54 %) in the HF- and HD-PDT groups
respectively (p = 0.150). Overall photoreceptor recovery rate was not different
between groups (p = 0.301, log-rank test). Delayed (>12 months) photoreceptor
recovery was significantly associated with baseline external limiting membrane
disruption (OR: 21.7, 95 % CI: 1.7-285.4, p = 0.019), disease duration (years,
OR: 1.9, 95 % CI: 1.2-3.0, p = 0.005), and fovea-to-PDT spot center distance
(100 μm unit, OR: 0.74, 95 % CI 0.56-0.97, p = 0.027). However, delayed
photoreceptor recovery was not significantly associated with PDT modality.
CONCLUSION: Both HF- and HD-PDT are effective in treating chronic CSC. No
significant differences in visual or anatomical outcomes were observed.

PMID: 25616728   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

6. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 24. [Epub ahead of print]

Regulation of surface expression of TRPV2 channels in the retinal pigment

Reichhart N(1), Keckeis S, Fried F, Fels G, Strauss O.

Author information: 
(1)Experimental Ophthalmology, Department of Ophthalmology, Campus Virchow
Clinics, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353,
Berlin, Germany.

PURPOSE: The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) interacts closely with the
photoreceptors in fulfilling tasks of visual function. Since an understanding of 
the RPE function is essential for understanding the patho-mechanisms involved in 
vision loss, we explored the regulation of the vanilloid receptor subtype
transient receptor potential TRPV2 channels that trigger insulin-like growth
factor-1 (IGF-1)-induced vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) secretion.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to assess TRPV2 expression in retinal
cross-sections or ARPE-19 cells, and surface expression of TRPV2 was quantified
using confocal microscopy. Membrane currents of ARPE-19 cells were recorded using
a whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique.
RESULTS: TRPV2 expression was detected in the RPE of the mouse retina as well as 
in ARPE-19 cells. Increasing the temperature to 45 °C activated membrane
conductance sensitive to SKF-96365 and ruthenium red in 60 % of cells.
Preincubation with either cannabidiol (CBD) or IGF-1 led to a three- or fourfold 
increase in current density, respectively, in all cells, which was blocked by
SKF-96365. In contrast to IGF-1, CBD stimulation of membrane conductance was
further increased by heat. TRPV2 surface expression was increased by both IGF-1
and CBD, with the increase by CBD twice as large as that by IGF-1. The
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 abolished the effects on 
membrane conductance and surface expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Both CBD and IGF-1 enhance TRPV2 channel activity by specific
proportions of both channel activation and PI 3-kinase-dependent surface
expression: IGF-1 predominantly increases ion channel activity, whereas CBD is
more active in increasing TRPV2 surface expression. Thus, differential regulation
of TRPV2 surface expression is an important mechanism for modulating the
responsiveness of the RPE to growth factors.

PMID: 25616727   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

7. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 22. [Epub ahead of print]

Acquired adenoma of the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium: analysis of five cases.

Yan J(1), Liu X, Zhang P, Li Y.

Author information: 
(1)The State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun
Yat-sen University, 54 Xieli Nan Road, Guangzhou, 510060, The People's Republic
of China,

PURPOSE: Adenoma of the non-pigmented ciliary epithelium (ANPCE) is extremely
rare. The aim of this study is to present our experience in treating this rare
entity and to determine the long-term surgical outcomes of local tumor resection 
(partial iridocyclectomy with lamellar sclerouvectomy) in five cases of ANPCE in 
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The medical data of four women and one man ranging in age
from 28 to 46 years (median, 38 years) with ANPCE were reviewed retrospectively
at the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-sen University, China. All patients
had received local tumor resection and the diagnosis was confirmed by
histopathological examination.
RESULTS: All five cases experienced blurred vision. The right eye was affected in
four cases and the left in one. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed a nodular,
non-pigmented, gray-white mass with a slightly irregular surface. Tumor invasion 
through the peripheral iris was observed in two patients, two patients had
multiple iris or ciliary cysts, and one patient had a partially bloodstained
cornea. All tumors transmitted light readily. Ultrasound biomicroscopy showed a
middle- or hyper-echoic solid mass in the ciliary body. MRI examination showed
the tumor hyperintense to vitreous on T1WI and hypointense to vitreous on T2WI.
Local resection was performed in all cases. After a median of 5.0 years of
follow-up, no tumor recurrence was present in any of the cases and all involved
eyes were saved. The visual acuity improved seven lines in three cases, decreased
one line in one case, and vision was lost in one case.
CONCLUSIONS: ANPCE often presents in adults as gray-white in color, with an
irregular and sometimes multilobulated surface. The tumor transmits light well.
Local resection of the mass generally provides the patient with useful vision.
Recurrence after surgical removal is unlikely.

PMID: 25605545   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

8. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 22. [Epub ahead of print]

A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of adding erythropoietin to intravenous 
methylprednisolone for the treatment of unilateral acute optic neuritis of
unknown or demyelinative origin.

Shayegannejad V(1), Shahzamani S, Dehghani A, Dast Borhan Z, Rahimi M,
Mirmohammadsadeghi A.

Author information: 
(1)Department of Neurology, Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Isfahan
University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

PURPOSE: To compare the effect of adding recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO)
to intravenous methylprednisolone for the treatment of unilateral acute optic
neuritis of unknown or demyelinative origin on the logarithm of the minimum angle
of resolution (logMAR), perimetric variables [mean deviation (MD) and pattern
standard deviation (PSD)], and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in
optical coherence tomography (OCT).
METHODS: Thirty patients (15 patients in each group) diagnosed with unilateral
acute optic neuritis of unknown or demyelinative origin were included. All
patients received 1, 000 mg intravenous methylprednisolone per day for 3 days.
One intravenous bullous dose of rhEPO with the dose of 33,000 IU was administered
at days 1-3 for the patients in group 2. One intravenous bullous dose of 0.9 %
normal saline was administered at days 1-3 for group 1 patients. At 6 months
post-intervention, in the involved eye, logMAR, MD, PSD, and mean RNFL thickness 
in each of four quadrants and post-intervention changes in each of the variables 
were compared between group 1 and group 2.
RESULTS: The amount of MD improvement after the intervention (difference of pre- 
and post-intervention MDs) was significantly higher in the group 2 patients
(p = 0.04). The other post-intervention variables, including post-intervention
PSD, amount of PSD improvement, and total and four-quadrant post-intervention
RNFL thickness and RNFL loss (difference of pre- and post-intervention RNFL
thicknesses), demonstrated no significant differences between group 1 and group
CONCLUSION: Until more controlled studies are available, the rhEPO is not
recommended as an add-on treatment for optic neuritis.

PMID: 25605544   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

9. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 22. [Epub ahead of print]

Venous oxygen saturation is reduced and variable in central retinal vein

Eliasdottir TS(1), Bragason D, Hardarson SH, Kristjansdottir G, Stefánsson E.

Author information: 
(1)University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland,

PMID: 25605543   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

10. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 16. [Epub ahead of print]

Cataract surgery in infants with microphthalmos.

Prasad S(1), Ram J, Sukhija J, Pandav SS, Gupta PC.

Author information: 
(1)Department of Ophthalmology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and 
Research, Chandigarh, 160012, India.

PURPOSE: To report the postoperative outcomes of cataract surgery in
microphthalmic eyes of infants.
METHODS: This prospective observational study was carried out on 20 infants with 
microphthalmos with visually significant cataract. Microphthalmos was defined as 
axial length of the globe 16.50 mm or less. We excluded eyes with ocular trauma, 
inflammation, posterior hyperplastic primary vitreous or a tractional retinal
detachment, aniridia, or chorioretinal coloboma. All the infants enrolled in this
study underwent phacoaspiration with primary posterior capsulotomy, anterior
vitrectomy, and peripheral iridectomy. Intraocular lens was not implanted in
these children. Post-operative evaluation included refractive errors,
irregularity of pupil, posterior synechiae, visual axis obscuration, and
intraocular pressure. These children were followed up for a minimum of 12 months.
RESULTS: We evaluated 37 eyes of 20 infants, of whom 17 infants had bilateral and
three infants had unilateral cataract. The mean age of the children and the mean 
axial length at the time of surgery were 3.78 ± 2.25 months and 15.76 ± 0.56 mm
respectively. The complications observed were irregularity of pupil in seven eyes
(18.9 %), glaucoma in five eyes (13.5 %), posterior synechiae in two eyes
(5.2 %), visual axis obscuration due to posterior capsule opacification (PCO) in 
two eyes (5.2 %) and phthisis in one eye (2.7 %).
CONCLUSION: Infants achieved a favorable outcome after phacoaspiration with
primary posterior capsulotomy with anterior vitrectomy. However, these children
must be followed up to detect and treat postoperative complications such as
visual axis obscuration, posterior synechiae, and glaucoma to achieve optimal

PMID: 25592478   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

11. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 16. [Epub ahead of print]

High rate of clinical recurrence in patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease
treated with early high-dose corticosteroids.

Sakata VM(1), da Silva FT, Hirata CE, Marin ML, Rodrigues H, Kalil J, Costa RA,
Yamamoto JH.

Author information: 
(1)Department of Ophthalmology, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade São Paulo,
Rua Diana 863 apto 91J, São Paulo, SP, 05.019-000, Brazil.

PURPOSE: To analyse the rate of clinical recurrences in Brazilian patients with
Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease after early high-dose corticosteroid
METHODS: Retrospective study including patients treated with early high-dose
corticosteroids (prednisone, 1-1.5 mg/kg/day, or 3-day 1 g methylprednisolone
pulsetherapy) within 1 month from disease onset followed by slow taper (at least 
6 months). Patients with a minimum 12-month follow-up were subdivided based on
the presence of disease recurrence or persistence after 6 months from initial
presentation into: acute-resolved (AR, no recurrences), chronic-recurrent (CR),
and chronic-recurrent with subretinal fibrosis (SRF). Recurrences were defined as
the presence of clinical and/or fluorescein angiography findings.
RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients (58 eyes) with a median follow-up of 65 months were
included. Six (21 %), 11 (38 %) and 12 (41 %) patients were allocated to AR, CR, 
and SRF groups respectively. Though having received treatment within 1 month of
onset, median time to initial treatment differed among groups (11, 15, and
25 days, in AR, CR, and SRF groups respectively). Intensity of immunosuppression,
cataract development, and longer time to achieve logMAR visual acuity ≤0.8
differed significantly among the groups, being more severe in SRF group.
HLA-DRB1*0405 allele followed the same trend, though not reaching significance
(0.5 in AR group, 0.6 in CR, and 0.8 in SRF).
CONCLUSION: VKH disease in Brazilian patients evolved to chronic-recurrent
disease in 79 % of cases; 38 % developed subretinal fibrosis, in spite of similar
initial treatment regimens. Time to initiate treatment influenced outcomes.

PMID: 25592477   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

12. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 15. [Epub ahead of print]

Nurse-administered intravitreal injections: a systematic review.

Li E(1), Greenberg PB, Krzystolik MG.

Author information: 
(1)Division of Ophthalmology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown
University, Providence, RI, USA.

PMID: 25588804   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

13. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 15. [Epub ahead of print]

A simple infrared-augmented digital photography technique for detection of
pupillary abnormalities.

Shazly TA(1), Bonhomme GR.

Author information: 
(1)Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 203
Lothrop St, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA,

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to describe a simple infrared
photography technique to aid in the diagnosis and documentation of pupillary
METHODS: An unmodified 12-megapixel "point and shoot" digital camera was used to 
obtain binocular still photos and videos under different light conditions with
near-infrared illuminating frames. The near-infrared light of 850 nm allows the
capture of clear pupil images in both dim and bright light conditions. It also
allows easy visualization of the pupil despite pigmented irides by augmenting the
contrast between the iris and the pupil.
RESULTS: The photos and videos obtained illustrated a variety of pupillary
abnormalities using the aforementioned technique.
CONCLUSIONS: This infrared-augmented photography technique supplements medical
education, and aids in the more rapid detection, diagnosis, and documentation of 
a wide spectrum of pupillary abnormalities. Its portability and ease of use with 
minimal training complements the education of trainees and facilitates the
establishment of difficult diagnoses.

PMID: 25585591   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

14. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 13. [Epub ahead of print]

Four-year to seven-year outcomes of advanced surface ablation with excimer laser 
for high myopia.

Hansen RS(1), Lyhne N, Grauslund J, Grønbech KT, Vestergaard AH.

Author information: 
(1)Department of Ophthalmology, Odense University Hospital, Sdr. Boulevard 29,
5000, Odense C, Denmark,

PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate and compare outcomes after photorefractive
keratectomy with cooling (cPRK) and laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy
(LASEK) for high myopia.
METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-masked follow-up study of patients
treated for myopia between 2007 and 2009 with cPRK or LASEK, using a
high-frequency flying-spot excimer laser with eye-tracker (MEL80; Carl Zeiss,
Jena, Germany). One eye of each patient was randomly chosen for analysis.
Re-treated eyes were excluded.
RESULTS: Forty-six cPRK patients and 35 LASEK patients were included. Spherical
equivalent averaged -7.69 ± 1.47 diopters (D) in cPRK eyes and -7.98 ± 2.06 D in 
LASEK eyes (p = 0.31) before surgery. The average follow-up time was 4.6 years in
cPRK patients and 6.0 years in LASEK patients (p < 0.05). At final follow-up, no 
cPRK eyes and one LASEK eye (p = 0.46) had lost two lines of corrected distance
visual acuity (CDVA). No eyes had significant haze at final follow-up, although
trace haze was found in four cPRK eyes and six LASEK eyes (p = 0.44). However, at
6 weeks after surgery, zero cPRK eyes and nine LASEK eyes (p < 0.05) had
significant haze. At final follow-up, 63 % of cPRK eyes and 35 % of LASEK eyes
(p = 0.17) were within ±1.0 D of intended refraction. Finally, 100 % of cPRK
patients and 92 % of LASEK patients (p = 0.87) were satisfied or very satisfied
with the surgery at final follow-up.
CONCLUSION: cPRK and LASEK seemed safe and with high patient satisfaction 4 to
7 years after surgery for high myopia. However, cPRK was more effective than
LASEK in reducing initial significant corneal haze.

PMID: 25582070   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

15. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 11. [Epub ahead of print]

CD40 ligand induces expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and
E-selectin in orbital fibroblasts from patients with Graves' orbitopathy.

Wang H(1), Zhu LS, Cheng JW, Cai JP, Li Y, Ma XY, Wei RL.

Author information: 
(1)Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military
Medical University, 415 Fengyang Road, 200003, Shanghai, China.

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to detect the effect of the CD40 ligand
(CD40L) on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and
E-Selectin in orbital fibroblasts (OFs) from patients with Graves' orbitopathy
(GO), as well as the signaling pathways involved in this effect.
METHODS: OFs were isolated from orbital tissues obtained from patients with
severe GO who were undergoing orbital decompression surgery. VCAM-1 and
E-selectin RNA and protein expression levels were quantified in OFs stimulated
with soluble CD40L (sCD40L). RNA and protein quantification was performed with
real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analysis. Cytoplasmic 
and nuclear fractions were isolated in order to detect the nuclear translocation 
of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Signaling pathway inhibitors were applied to
determine the pathways involved.
RESULTS: Compared to unstimulated OFs, the mRNA and protein levels of VCAM-1 and 
E-selectin in OFs incubated with sCD40L were significantly increased. This was
observed in dose- and time-course experiments, and the inductive effects of
sCD40L were much weaker in OFs from healthy donors. At the same time, we observed
that CD40L induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB, also in a dose- and
time-dependent manner. The up-regulation of VCAM-1 and E-selectin, as well as the
NF-κB nuclear translocation induced by CD40L, was significantly attenuated by
inhibitors targeting mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs),
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and NF-κB.
CONCLUSIONS: CD40L demonstrated the ability to up-regulate the expression of
VCAM-1 and E-selectin at the pre-translational level in OFs from patients with
GO. The MAPK and PI3K pathways and NF-κB may play important roles in
CD40L-induced VCAM-1 and E-selectin expression.

PMID: 25576172   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

16. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 11. [Epub ahead of print]

A case-control study to assess aspirin as a risk factor of bleeding in
rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery.

Brillat E(1), Rouberol F, Palombi K, Quesada JL, Bernheim D, Albaladejo P, Aptel 
F, Romanet JP, Chiquet C.

Author information: 
(1)UJF-Grenoble 1, Grenoble, F-38041, France.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hemorrhagic risk factors
during the management of primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD).
METHODS: Three hundred and twenty-two patients with (n = 74) or without (n = 248)
bleeding (anterior segment, choroidal, intravitreal and/or subretinal) during or 
after RD surgery were included in this case-control study. Exclusion criteria
were: history of trauma, vitreoretinal surgery, diabetic retinopathy, and taking 
clopidogrel and/or a vitamin K antagonist. Univariate and multivariate analyses
were performed to identify risk factors of perioperative bleeding.
RESULTS: Aspirin was not significantly associated with bleeding complications
during or after surgery (p = 0.8). Scleral buckling (with cryotherapy and gas
tamponnade) was performed in 47 % of the cases and pars plana vitrectomy in 53 % 
of the cases. Independent risk factors of perioperative hemorrhage were the
number of cryotherapy impacts (odds ratio =1.12 [1.06; 1.20], 95 % confidence
interval), transscleral drainage (OR = 4.22 [1.62; 10.98]), and use of pars plana
vitrectomy (OR = 3.39 [1.36; 8.47]). Bleeding complications were associated with 
a lower single-operation anatomical success rate (74 % vs 84 %, p = 0.03). There 
was also a trend toward an association between bleeding complications, a higher
total number of RD recurrences (0.19 ± 0.5 in the non-bleeding group vs
0.34 ± 0.6, p = 0.06), and a lower final visual acuity (0.5 ± 0.6 logMAR vs
0.7 ± 0.7, p = 0.09).
CONCLUSION: This case-control study suggests that aspirin is not a major risk
factor of hemorrhagic complications during and after RD surgery. Perioperative
bleeding leads to a lower single-operation anatomic success rate.

PMID: 25576171   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

17. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 11. [Epub ahead of print]

Monthly microperimetry (MP1) measurement of macular sensitivity after
dexamethasone implantation (Ozurdex) in retinal vein occlusions.

Winterhalter S(1), Vom Brocke GA, Klamann MK, Müller B, Joussen AM.

Author information: 
(1)Department of Ophthalmology Charité Virchowklinikum, University of Berlin,
Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353, Berlin, Germany,

PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in macular sensitivity as measured via
microperimetry (MP) in patients with macular edema (ME) secondary to retinal vein
occlusion (RVO) after dexamethasone implantation (DEX implantation, Ozurdex), in 
comparison to distance visual acuity, reading ability, and spectral domain
optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).
METHODS: Twenty-three patients with ME secondary to RVO were treated with a DEX
implantation in this prospective, observational case study. Patients were
controlled at baseline and then monthly with microperimetry and assessment of
distance visual acuity, reading ability, and SD- OCT. Side effects of the DEX
implant were monitored by measuring the intraocular pressure (IOP) and lens
grading with Lens Opacities Classification System (LOCS) charts.
RESULTS: The 23 patients with RVO included 16 patients with branch retinal vein
occlusion (BRVO) and 7 patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).
Improvement in distance visual acuity, reading ability, and in central 8-points
microperimetry showed statistical significance from month 1 to 3, whereas the
40-points microperimetry improved with statistical significance from month 1 to
2. The reduction of central retinal thickness measured with SD-OCT remained
statistically significant until month 4. Subgroup analysis of patients with BRVO 
and CRVO confirmed the best test results observed at month two after DEX
CONCLUSIONS: The highest macular sensitivity was measured two months after DEX
implantation. This corresponds to the best test results for distance visual
acuity, reading ability, and SD-OCT observed two months after treatment.

PMID: 25576170   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

18. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 10. [Epub ahead of print]

Comment on Eliasdottir et al., Venous oxygen saturation is reduced and variable
in central retinal vein occlusion.

Gokce G(1), Ozge G, Mumcuoglu T, Durukan AH.

Author information: 
(1)Department of Ophthalmology, Kayseri Military Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey,

PMID: 25572358   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

19. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 10. [Epub ahead of print]

Ocular findings in Sheehan's syndrome.

Atmaca M(1), Kızıldağ E, Candan Z, Özbay MF, Seven İ.

Author information: 
(1)Faculty of Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Yuzuncu Yil
University, Van, Turkey,

BACKGROUND: Sheehan's syndrome (SS) is one of the most common causes of
hypopituitarism. The primary effect of SS is a deficiency in production of growth
hormone (GH). A number of studies have supported the association between
congenital GH deficiency and ocular anomalies. However, ocular findings such as
central corneal thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP), and retinal nerve
fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) have not been evaluated in patients with adult GH
deficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate ocular anomalies in SS
with GH deficiency under a cross-sectional design.
METHODS: Thirty three SS patients with GH deficiency and 28 controls with no
history of thyroid, adrenal, or pituitary gland diseases or surgery underwent
complete hormonal and ophthalmological evaluation, including an assessment of
CCTs, IOPs, and RNFLT.
RESULTS: The mean CCTs were significantly lower in the SS group compared with the
control group (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between patients
and controls in terms of mean IOP, mean corrected IOP, and mean RNFLT (p = 0.517,
p = 0.186, p = 0.965, respectively). The mean CCT was positively correlated with 
insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1; p < 0.01) and adrenocorticotropic hormone
(ACTH; p < 0.01) and negatively correlated with the corrected mean IOP
(p < 0.05). In covariance analysis, IGF-1 was found to be a potential predictor
of the mean CCT (p = 0.023).
CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first investigation of ocular findings in SS and
adult GH deficiency. Adult GH deficiency is characterized by lower CCT values.

PMID: 25572357   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

20. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 10. [Epub ahead of print]

The effects of ocular magnification on Spectralis spectral domain optical
coherence tomography scan length.

Ctori I(1), Gruppetta S, Huntjens B.

Author information: 
(1)Applied Vision Research Centre, The Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Vision
Sciences, City University London, Northampton Square, London, EC1V 0HB, UK,

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of incorporating
individual ocular biometry measures of corneal curvature, refractive error, and
axial length on scan length obtained using Spectralis spectral domain optical
coherence tomography (SD-OCT).
METHODS: Two SD-OCT scans were acquired for 50 eyes of 50 healthy participants,
first using the Spectralis default keratometry (K) setting followed by
incorporating individual mean-K values. Resulting scan lengths were compared to
predicted scan lengths produced by image simulation software, based on individual
ocular biometry measures including axial length.
RESULTS: Axial length varied from 21.41 to 29.04 mm. Spectralis SD-OCT scan
lengths obtained with default-K ranged from 5.7 to 7.3 mm, and with mean-K from
5.6 to 7.6 mm. We report a stronger correlation of simulated scan lengths
incorporating the subject's mean-K value (ρ = 0.926, P < 0.0005) compared to
Spectralis default settings (ρ = 0.663, P < 0.0005).
CONCLUSIONS: Ocular magnification appears to be better accounted for when
individual mean-K values are incorporated into Spectralis SD-OCT scan acquisition
versus using the device's default-K setting. This must be considered when taking 
area measurements and lateral measurements parallel to the retinal surface.

PMID: 25572356   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

21. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 10. [Epub ahead of print]

Phacodyne versus VisionBlue as vital dyes in Descemet membrane endothelial

Bucher F(1), Simons HG, Cursiefen C, Heindl LM.

Author information: 
(1)Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Kerpener Strasse 62,
50924, Cologne, Germany,

PMID: 25572355   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

22. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 10. [Epub ahead of print]

Egress of large quantities of heavy liquids from exposed choroid: a route for
possible tumor dissemination via vortex veins in endoresection of choroidal

Joussen AM(1), Wong D.

Author information: 
(1)Department of Ophthalmology, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Klinikum
Steglitz (CBF), Hindenburgdamm 30, 12200, Berlin, Germany,

PMID: 25572354   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

23. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 10. [Epub ahead of print]

Venous oxygen saturation is reduced and variable in central retinal vein

Yolcu U(1), Ilhan A, Gundogan FC, Erdem U.

Author information: 
(1)Ophthalmology Service, Sarıkamış Military Hospital, Kars, 36500, Turkey,

PMID: 25572353   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

24. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 10. [Epub ahead of print]

Clinicopathologic features of orbital immunoglobulin G4-related disease
(IgG4-RD): a case series and literature review.

Mulay K(1), Aggarwal E, Honavar SG.

Author information: 
(1)National Reporting Centre for Ophthalmic Pathology (NRCOP), Centre For Sight, 
Ashoka Capitol Building, Banjara Hills, Road No.2, Hyderabad, 500034, India,

BACKGROUND: Involvement of orbital structures by immunoglobulin G4-related
disease (IgG4-RD) is not uncommon. We conducted this study to evaluate the
clinicopathologic features of orbital IgG4-RD.
MATERIAL/METHODS: This was a retrospective, clinicopathologic study. Clinical
records, light microscopic features, results of immunostaining with IgG & IgG4
and laboratory findings were reviewed in 16 patients diagnosed with orbital
RESULTS: Eleven patients had a bilateral disease, and the lacrimal gland was
involved in 14. Dense sclerosis, plasma cell aggregates and dense
lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate were seen in all patients. Serum IgG4 titre was
elevated in 12 patients. Nine patients responded completely to glucocorticoid
treatment. Five patients had a relapse on discontinuation of treatment.
CONCLUSION: Orbital IgG4-RD is a distinct clinicopathologic entity requiring
increased awareness and needs to be differentiated from other orbital
lymphoproliferative lesions.

PMID: 25572352   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

25. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 10. [Epub ahead of print]

Impact of temporary hyperthermia on corneal endothelial cell survival during
organ culture preservation.

Schroeter J(1), Ruggeri A, Thieme H, Meltendorf C.

Author information: 
(1)Institute of Transfusion Medicine, University Tissue Bank, Cornea Bank Berlin,
Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Charitéplatz 1, 10117,
Berlin, Germany,

To evaluate temporary exposure to hyperthermia for its impact on endothelial cell
density of porcine corneas in organ culture medium containing dextran with
regards to possible negative influences of high temperatures during the storage
and transport of corneal grafts. Four groups of central discs (diameter 8 mm)
from the corneas of both eyes in 40 pigs were first organ-cultured (MEM with 6%
dextran 500) for 24 h at 32°C. Ten corneas were then exposed to 40°C in group 1, 
to 42°C in group 2, to 44°C in group 3, and to 50°C in group 4 for 12 h each. The
paired corneal discs for all groups were not treated, stored at 32°C and served
as controls. After further organ culture of all corneas for 48 h at 32°C to allow
regenerative processes, corneal endothelium was stained with Alizarin Red S and
examined by light microscopy. The endothelial cell densities were determined on
three central images using a system for the automatic estimation of morphometric 
parameters of corneal endothelium. Exposure for 12 h to 40°C as well as to 42°C
induced no endothelial cell loss. Statistical analysis showed no significant
difference of the endothelial cell density between corneas exposed to 40°C and
42°C and the control corneas (40°C treatment: 4736 ± 426 cells/mm(2) and control:
4762 ± 344 cells/mm(2), p = 0.74; 42°C treatment: 4240 ± 363 cells/mm(2) and
control: 4176 ± 448 cells/mm(2), p = 0.40). Exposure to 44°C and 50°C lead to
total necrosis of the endothelial cell layer. Exposure of organ cultured porcine 
corneas in dextran containing medium up to 42°C for 12 h does not compromise the 
endothelial cell density in a clinically relevant manner. Temperatures above
42°C, as it might be the case during transports from the cornea bank to the
ophthalmic surgeon, must be strictly avoided as they damage the endothelial cell 

PMID: 25572351   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

26. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 8. [Epub ahead of print]

Response to the letter to the editor: Venous oxygen saturation is reduced and
variable in central retinal vein occlusion.

Eliasdottir TS(1), Bragason D, Hardarson SH, Kristjansdottir G, Stefánsson E.

Author information: 
(1)University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland,

PMID: 25563728   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

27. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan 8. [Epub ahead of print]

Acute central serous chorioretinopathy: a correlation study between fundus
autofluorescence and spectral-domain OCT.

Iacono P(1), Battaglia PM, Papayannis A, La Spina C, Varano M, Bandello F.

Author information: 
(1)Fondazione G. B. Bietti per l'Oftalmologia, IRCCS (Istituto di Ricovero e Cura
a Carattere Scientifico), Via Livenza 3, Rome, Italy,

PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation between fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and
spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) morphological analysis in eyes with acute central
serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR).
METHODS: Thirty-one patients with a first episode of CSCR and symptom duration of
less than 6 weeks were prospectively enrolled. FAF and SD-OCT examination were
performed at baseline and at 2-month intervals. Main outcome measure was the
correlation between FAF and SD-OCT retinal morphology.
RESULTS: At baseline, 30/31 and 29/31 eyes showed a macular hypo-AF,
corresponding to the neurosensory retinal detachment (SRD), on shortwave-FAF
(SW-FAF) and near-infrared-FAF (NIR-FAF), respectively. While the SRD resolved,
both FAF techniques showed a granular hyper-AF in 31 eyes. At first examination, 
SD-OCT confirmed the SRD with a photoreceptor outer-segment (OS) elongation in
all cases. During SRD resolution, the photoreceptor layer appeared thicker and
fragmented. Multiple hyper-reflective precipitates were detected in the outer
plexiform and nuclear layer and between the photoreceptors and appeared
colocalized with the hyper-AF dots composing the granular hyper-AF. After SRD
resolution, the hypo-AF area reverted to a normal pattern on SW-FAF in all eyes
and in 25/31 on NIR-FAF. Examination at 12 months showed that the granular
hyper-AF was still detectable in 54 % eyes, whereas 6/31 eyes showed hypo-AF dots
on NIR-FAF. On SD-OCT, the junction IS/OS was identifiable in 11/31 eyes soon
after the SRD resolution and appeared completely restored in all patients at the 
final visit.
CONCLUSION: The simultaneous acquisition of FAF and SD-OCT provides detailed
findings of retinal abnormalities of CSCR and may help to understand the evolving
process linked to CSCR.

PMID: 25563727   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

28. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2014 Dec 31. [Epub ahead of print]

Inhibition of cell proliferation and migration after HTRA1 knockdown in retinal
pigment epithelial cells.

Pei X(1), Ma K, Xu J, Wang N, Liu N.

Author information: 
(1)Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical
University, Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Laboratory, No. 1
Dongjiaominxiang, Dongcheng District, Beijing, China,

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of HtrA serine
peptidase 1 (HTRA1) in the proliferation and migration of cells of the human
retinal pigment epithelial cell line ARPE-19, and the possible mechanisms
METHODS: ARPE-19 cells were transduced by a recombinant lentiviral vector
carrying HTRA1-shRNA to knockdown HTRA1 expression. Subsequent HTRA1 gene and
HTRA1 protein levels in these cells and control cells were detected by
quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. Changes in cell
proliferation and migration associated with the inhibition of HTRA1 expression
were assessed, as well as changes in the mRNA levels of transforming growth
factor beta 1 (TGFB1), bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), and bone
morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2).
RESULTS: The recombinant lentivirus carrying HTRA1-shRNA was successfully
generated, as evidenced by reduced levels of HTRA1 mRNA and HTRA1 protein in
ARPE-19 cells. The knockdown of HTRA1 in ARPE-19 cells was associated with
reduced cellular proliferation and migration, and increased mRNA levels of
TGF-β1, BMP4, and BMP2.
CONCLUSIONS: Silence of the HTRA1 gene was associated with significantly higher
levels of TGF-β1, BMP4, and BMP2 mRNA and reduction in the proliferation and
migration of ARPE-19 cells.

PMID: 25550099   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

29. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2014 Dec 31. [Epub ahead of print]

Relationships among serum lipoprotein lipase mass, visceral fat, and retinal
nerve fiber layer thickness.

Shiba C(1), Shiba T, Takahashi M, Hori Y, Maeno T.

Author information: 
(1)Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University Sakura Medical Center, 564-1
Shimoshizu, Sakura, Chiba, 285-8741, Japan.

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine whether there were significant
correlations among the serum lipoprotein lipase mass, visceral fat, and the
retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness.
METHODS: We studied 118 consecutive subjects. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) 
was used to measure the RNFL thickness. The Pearson correlation coefficient was
used to determine the relationships among lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mass, visceral
fat area by computed tomography, OCT, and other parameters. We performed a
multiple regression analysis to identify independent factors for the RNFL sectors
that were the most strongly correlated with the LPL mass and visceral fat area.
RESULTS: The LPL mass was significantly correlated with the nasal RNFL thickness 
in both eyes (right eye: r = 0.24, p = 0.008, left eye: 0.32, 0.0008) and
inferior RNFL thickness in the left eye ( r = 0.23, p = 0.01). The visceral fat
area was significantly correlated with the nasal RNFL thickness in both eyes
(right eye: r = -0.19, p = 0.04, left eye: -0.30, 0.0008) and the inferior RNFL
thickness in the left eye ( r = -0.23, p = 0.01). The subcutaneous fat area was
not significantly correlated with any OCT parameters. The multiple regression
analysis revealed that age, LPL mass, and visceral fat area were independent
contributors to the nasal RNFL thickness in the left eye (age, standard
regression coefficient = -0.34 , p = 0.0004; LPL mass, 0.26, 2.49, 0.01; visceral
fat area, -0.21, 0.03).
CONCLUSION: A reduction of lipoprotein lipase and accumulation of visceral fat
might produce retinal neurodegenerative disorders that decrease the RNFL
thickness, especially on the nasal side.

PMID: 25550098   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

30. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2014 Dec 31. [Epub ahead of print]

Thalidomide reduces choroidal thickness and optic disc edema in a patient with
POEMS syndrome.

Yokouchi H(1), Oshitari T, Baba T, Yamamoto S.

Author information: 
(1)Departments of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Graduate School of Medicine, 
Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, chuo-ku, Chiba city, Chiba, 260-0856, Japan,

PMID: 25550097   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]