Journal Contents

Am Jour Ophthalmol
Br J Ophthalmol
Can J Ophthalmol
J Cat Ref Surg
Curr Eye Res
Eur J Ophthalmol
J Glaucoma
JAMA Ophthalmol
Graefes Ophthalmol
Indian J Ophthalmol
Int Ophthalmol Clin
Invest Ophth Vis Sci
Jpn J Ophthalmol
Korean J Ophthal
J Neuroophthalmol
Ophthalmic Epidemiol
Ophthalmic Genet
Ophthal Plast Rec Surg
Ophthalmic Res
Surv Ophthalmol
Ophthalmology Review Journal
Eye[JOUR] Established 1995
1. Eye (Lond). 2015 May 15. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.64. [Epub ahead of print]

Sustained supplementation and monitored response with differing carotenoid
formulations in early age-related macular degeneration.

Akuffo KO(1), Nolan JM(1), Howard AN(2), Moran R(1), Stack J(1), Klein R(3),
Klein BE(3), Meuer SM(3), Sabour-Pickett S(1), Thurnham DI(4), Beatty S(1).

Author information: 
(1)Macular Pigment Research Group, Department of Chemical and Life Sciences,
Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford, Ireland. (2)Howard Foundation,
Cambridge, UK. (3)Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of 
Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA. (4)Northern Ireland, Centre for Food and Health
(NICHE), University of Ulster, Coleraine, UK.

PurposeTo compare the impact of sustained supplementation using different macular
carotenoid formulations on macular pigment (MP) and visual function in early
age-related macular degeneration (AMD).Patients and methodsSixty-seven subjects
with early AMD were randomly assigned to: Group 1 (20 mg per day lutein (L),
0.86 mg per day zeaxanthin (Z); Ultra Lutein), Group 2 (10 mg per day
meso-zeaxanthin (MZ), 10 mg per day L, 2 mg per day Z; Macushield; Macuhealth),
Group 3 (17 mg per day MZ, 3 mg per day L, 2 mg per day Z). MP was measured using
customised heterochromatic flicker photometry and visual function was assessed by
measuring contrast sensitivity (CS) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). AMD 
was graded using the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System (AREDS
11-step severity scale).ResultsAt 3 years, a significant increase in MP from
baseline was observed in all groups at each eccentricity (P<0.05), except at
1.75° in Group 1 (P=0.160). Between 24 and 36 months, significant increases in MP
at each eccentricity were seen in Group 3 (P<0.05 for all), and at 0.50° in Group
2 (P<0.05), whereas no significant increases were seen in Group 1 (P>0.05 for
all). At 36 months, compared with baseline, the following significant
improvements (P<0.05) in CS were observed: Group 2-1.2, 6, and 9.6 cycles per
degree (c.p.d.); Group 1-15.15 c.p.d.; and Group 3-6, 9.6, and 15.15 c.p.d. No
significant changes in BCVA, or progression to advanced AMD, were
observed.ConclusionIn early AMD, MP can be augmented with a variety of
supplements, although the inclusion of MZ may confer benefits in terms of
panprofile augmentation and in terms of CS enhancement.Eye advance online
publication, 15 May 2015; doi:10.1038/eye.2015.64.

PMID: 25976647   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

2. Eye (Lond). 2015 May 15. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.66. [Epub ahead of print]

Relationship between socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and cataracts in
Koreans: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011.

Nam GE(1), Han K(2), Ha SG(3), Han BD(1), Kim DH(1), Kim YH(1), Cho KH(1), Park
YG(2), Ko BJ(4).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul,
South Korea. (2)Department of Biostatistics, College of Medicine, The Catholic
University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea. (3)Department of Ophthalmology, College 
of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea. (4)Total Healthcare Center,
Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul,
South Korea.

PurposeCataracts are the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness, and
therefore early identification and modification of the risk factors for cataracts
are meaningful. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between
socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle factors, and age-related cataracts in
South Korea.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was based on data collected in the 
2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of
15 866 subjects, aged ≥40 years, were included. SES was defined using household
income and education level. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, and other associated
factors were assessed by health interviews and examinations. Cataracts were
diagnosed via slit-lamp examination using the Lens Opacities Classification
System III.ResultsThe prevalence of any cataract was 38.9% in men and 42.3% in
women (P<0.001). In women, the risk of cataracts increased with decreases in
household income (P-value for trend=0.016 and 0.041 in any, and cortical
cataract, respectively) and education level (P-value for trend=0.009, 0.027, and 
0.016 in any, nuclear, and cortical cataract, respectively) after adjusting for
confounding factors. Current smoking was correlated with nuclear cataracts in men
(OR 1.21; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.46 in age-adjusted analysis) and cataract surgery in
women (OR 2.25; 95% CI: 1.00, 5.04 in multivariate-adjusted
analysis).ConclusionsSocioeconomic disparities in cataract prevalence were
observed in women; current smoking increased the risk of nuclear cataracts in men
and surgery in women. Public health interventions focusing on gender differences 
are warranted to prevent and treat cataracts.Eye advance online publication, 15
May 2015; doi:10.1038/eye.2015.66.

PMID: 25976646   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

3. Eye (Lond). 2015 May 15. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.74. [Epub ahead of print]

A novel truncation mutation in GJA1 associated with open angle glaucoma and
microcornea in a large Chinese family.

Huang X(1), Wang N(1), Xiao X(1), Li S(1), Zhang Q(1).

Author information: 
(1)State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun
Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

PurposeTo identify genetic defects in a large family with open angle glaucoma
(OAG) and microcornea.MethodsGenomic DNA was prepared from leukocytes of 15
individuals from three generations of a Chinese family, including seven
individuals with OAG and microcornea, one with microcornea alone, and seven
healthy individuals. Whole exome sequencing was performed on genomic DNA of the
proband. Candidate variants were obtained through multiple steps of
bioinformatics analysis and validated by Sanger sequencing and segregation
analysis.ResultsExome sequencing detected a candidate variant in GJA1, a novel
truncation mutation (c.791_792delAA, p.K264Ifs*43). This mutation was present in 
all seven individuals with OAG and microcornea and the individual with
microcornea alone, but not in the seven unaffected relatives in the family. It
was not present in 1394 alleles from 505 unrelated controls without glaucoma and 
192 normal controls. Extraocular signs were not observed in seven out of the
eight individuals; only one was affected with dental enamel hypoplasia and
syndactyly.ConclusionsA novel truncation mutation in GJA1 is associated with OAG 
and microcornea in a Chinese family. This suggests that GJA1 should be included
as a candidate gene for glaucoma.Eye advance online publication, 15 May 2015;

PMID: 25976645   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

4. Eye (Lond). 2015 May 15. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.52. [Epub ahead of print]

Web-based information on glaucoma.

Zaidi FH(1), Ansari E(2).

Author information: 
(1)Maidstone and Tunbridge Wells NHS Trust, Hermitage Lane, Maidstone, Kent ME16 
9QQ, UK. (2)1] Maidstone and Tunbridge Wells NHS Trust, Hermitage Lane,
Maidstone, Kent ME16 9QQ, UK [2] Department of Physical sciences, Ingram
Building, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NH, UK.

PMID: 25976644   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

5. Eye (Lond). 2015 May 15. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.68. [Epub ahead of print]

Patterns of ranibizumab and aflibercept treatment of central retinal vein
occlusion in routine clinical practice in the USA.

Călugăru D(1), Călugăru M(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Ophthalmology, University of Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

PMID: 25976643   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

6. Eye (Lond). 2015 May 15. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.70. [Epub ahead of print]

Cataract extraction and patient vision-related quality of life: a cohort study.

Javed U(1), McVeigh K(2), Scott NW(3), Azuara-Blanco A(4).

Author information: 
(1)Wishaw Resource Centre, Wishaw, Scotland. (2)Ophthalmology Department, Royal
United Hospital, Bath, England. (3)Medical Statistics Team, Division of Applied
Health Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland. (4)Centre for
Experimental Medicine, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland.

AimsCataract surgery is one of the most common surgeries performed, but its
overuse has been reported. The threshold for cataract surgery has become
increasingly lenient; therefore, the selection process and surgical need has been
questioned. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes associated with
cataract surgery in patient-reported vision-related quality of life
(VR-QoL).MethodsA prospective cohort study was conducted. Consecutive patients
referred to cataract clinics in an NHS unit in Scotland were identified. Those
listed for surgery were invited to complete a validated questionnaire (TyPE) to
measure VR-QoL pre- and post-operatively. TyPE has five different domains (near
vision, distance vision, daytime driving, night-time driving, and glare) and a
global score of vision. The influence of pre-operative visual acuity (VA) levels,
vision, and lens status of the fellow eye on changes in VR-QoL were
explored.ResultsA total of 320 listed patients were approached, of whom 36 were
excluded. Among the 284 enrolled patients, 229 (81%) returned the questionnaire
after surgery. Results revealed that the mean overall vision improved, as
reported by patients. Improvements were also seen in all sub-domains of the
questionnaire.ConclusionThe majority of patients appear to have improvement in
patient-reported VR-QoL, including those with good pre-operative VA and previous 
surgery to the fellow eye. VA thresholds may not capture the effects of the
quality of life on patients. This information can assist clinicians to make more 
informed decisions when debating over the benefits of listing a patient for
cataract extraction.Eye advance online publication, 15 May 2015;

PMID: 25976642   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

7. Eye (Lond). 2015 May 15. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.80. [Epub ahead of print]

OCT angiography and sequential quantitative analysis of type 2 neovascularization
after ranibizumab therapy.

Kuehlewein L(1), Sadda SR(1), Sarraf D(2).

Author information: 
(1)1] Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA [2] Stein Eye Institute, Los
Angeles, CA, USA. (2)1] Stein Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA [2] Department 
of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
[3] Greater Los Angeles VA Healthcare Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

PurposeTo study the precise structural aspects of a type 2 neovascular membrane
in a patient with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using optical coherence 
tomography (OCT) angiography and perform sequential quantitative analysis of the 
membrane after ranibizumab therapy.Patients and methodsSplit-spectrum
amplitude-decorrelation (SSADA) OCT angiography macular cubes (3 × 3 mm) were
acquired with a light source centered at 840 nm, a bandwidth of 45 nm, and an
A-scan-rate of 70 000 scans per second. Visible pathologic vessels were outlined 
manually on average intensity projection en face images, and the area of the
lesion and the vessel density were measured at baseline and follow-up.ResultsAt
baseline, the neovascular lesion measured 4.12 mm(2) and the vessel density was
19.83 mm(-1). Four weeks after the first, and 2 and 4 weeks after the second
ranibizumab injection, OCT angiography revealed a progressively smaller vascular 
lesion (2.32, 1.77 and 1.64 mm(2)), and vessel density (10.24, 8.52 and
7.57 mm(-1)), although the large central trunks of the lesion were
unchanged.ConclusionsIn this study, an obvious reduction in size and vessel
density of the neovascular lesion was noted after treatment with ranibizumab
using SSADA OCT angiography technology. Microvascular components can be
delineated with precision, suggesting that this technique may be useful for the
management of patients with neovascular AMD in a clinical setting as well as for 
future clinical trials.Eye advance online publication, 15 May 2015;

PMID: 25976641   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

8. Eye (Lond). 2015 May 15. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.69. [Epub ahead of print]

Response to 'Patterns of ranibizumab and aflibercept treatment of central retinal
vein occlusion in routine clinical practice in the USA'.

Lotery A(1), Regnier S(2).

Author information: 
(1)Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of
Southampton, Southampton, UK. (2)Novartis Pharma AG, Health Economics and
Outcomes Research, Basel, Switzerland.

PMID: 25976640   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

9. Eye (Lond). 2015 May 15. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.75. [Epub ahead of print]

New antithrombotic agents and the need for updated ophthalmic surgery guidelines.

Wijetilleka S(1), Ramskold L(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Ophthalmology, Singleton Hospital, Swansea, UK.

PMID: 25976639   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

10. Eye (Lond). 2015 May 15. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.71. [Epub ahead of print]

Matched optical quality comparison of 3-year results of PRK-MMC and phakic IOL
implantation in the correction of high myopia.

Miraftab M(1), Hashemi H(1), Asgari S(2).

Author information: 
(1)Noor Ophthalmology Research Center, Noor Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran.
(2)Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran 
University of Medical Sciences, International Campus (TUMS-IC), Tehran, Iran.

AimsTo compare 3-year results of PRK-MMC and phakic intraocular lens (PIOL)
implantation in patients with >8.0 diopters (D) of myopia.MethodsThis study was
conducted as a non-randomized clinical trial on 23 eyes treated with PIOL
(Artiflex; group A) and 23 eyes treated with PRK-MMC (group B). This report
compares 3-year treatment results in these two groups.ResultsAt 3 years after
surgery, uncorrected visual acuity was 0.02±0.06 LogMAR in group A and 0.04±0.07 
LogMAR in group B (P=0.639). Mean best corrected visual acuity in group A
(0.004±0.02) was better than group B (0.03±0.07 LogMAR) (P=0.035). Mean manifest 
refraction spherical equivalent was -0.16±0.21 and -0.09±0.20D (P=0.190),
respectively. Mesopic contrast sensitivity (CS) in the spatial frequency of three
cycle/degree (CS3) significantly decreased in both groups, but the reduction was 
significantly higher in group B (P=0.024). CS6 decreased significantly only in
group B (P=0.019). Changes in CS12 and CS18 showed no significant inter-group
difference. In group A, the increase in C6 trefoil (0.16±0.18 μm, P=0.003) and
reduction in spherical aberration (SA; 0.16±0.08 μm, P<0.001) were statistically 
significant. In group B, the reduction in vertical coma (P=0.052), and increases 
in horizontal coma (P=0.044), coma (P<0.001), SA (P<0.001), and total higher
order aberrations (P<0.001) were significant after surgery.ConclusionBased on
3-year results, PIOL implantation is a better choice than PRK-MMC for treating
patients with >8.0D myopia. However, for patients with an inadequate aqueous
depth, PRK-MMC can be an acceptable treatment option with a potential for
decreased quality of vision.Eye advance online publication, 15 May 2015;

PMID: 25976638   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

11. Eye (Lond). 2015 May 8. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.58. [Epub ahead of print]

Clinical characteristics of responders to intravitreal bevacizumab in central
serous chorioretinopathy patients.

Kim GA(1), Rim TH(1), Lee SC(1), Byeon SH(1), Koh HJ(1), Kim SS(1), Lee CS(1);

Author information: 
(1)The Institute of Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, Yonsei
University College of Medicine, Shinchon Severance Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

PurposeTo investigate factors associated with good response to intravitreal
bevacizumab (IVB) in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) patients.MethodsWe
retrospectively reviewed 42 eyes of CSC patients of symptom duration more than 3 
months who received a single or multiple successive IVBs on an as-needed basis
(0.05 ml, 1.25 mg). High responders (HRs) were defined as complete resolution of 
subretinal fluid (SRF) on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). 
Moderate responders (MRs) were defined as SRF resolution of 50-99% of
pretreatment volume and poor responders (PRs) as SRF resolution <50%. Clinical,
SD-OCT, fluorescein, and indocyanine green angiography findings were analyzed to 
find factors associated with HR. Descriptive statistics for all demographic and
clinical variables were calculated, and comparisons were made using Wilcoxon's
matched-pairs signed-rank test, the Mann-Whitney U-test for means with continuous
data, Pearson's χ(2) test, and Fisher's exact test for categorical
data.ResultsThe mean number of IVB was 1.9. At postoperative 1 month, there were 
10 (24%) HRs, 18 (43%) MRs, and 14 (33%) PRs. At the last follow-up (the mean 8.6
months), there were 25 HRs (60%), 9 MRs (21%), and 8 PRs (19%). Thicker subfoveal
choroid (P=0.036), smaller lesion diameter (P=0.019), and better baseline
best-corrected visual acuity (P=0.002) predicted HRs at postoperative 1 month. HR
at the last follow-up was associated with classic pattern fluorescein angiography
finding.ConclusionsSuboptimal effects of IVB on persistent CSC suggest primary
IVB on selective cases with better vision, smaller lesion, and thicker choroid at
baseline.Eye advance online publication, 8 May 2015; doi:10.1038/eye.2015.58.

PMID: 25952951   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

12. Eye (Lond). 2015 May 8. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.61. [Epub ahead of print]

Correlation of structure and function of the macula in patients with retinitis

Battu R(1), Khanna A(1), Hegde B(2), Berendschot TT(3), Grover S(4), Schouten

Author information: 
(1)Department of Vitreoretina, Narayana Nethralaya, Bangalore, India. (2)Forus
Health Pvt. Ltd, Bangalore, India. (3)University Maastricht, Maastricht, The
Netherlands. (4)University of Florida, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

PurposeTo correlate the structure of the macula, as measured by spectral-domain
optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and function, as measured by microperimetry
(MAIA) in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and relatively good visual
acuity.DesignProspective, cross-sectional, non-intervention
study.SubjectsPatients with RP.MethodsThirty patients with RP and good central
visual acuity were identified. Each patient underwent SD-OCT of the macula and
microperimetry. The images were overlaid using the custom-designed software. The 
retinal sensitivity by microperimetry was correlated with corresponding retinal
thickness, as measured by the SD-OCT. ELM, COST, and IS/OS junction were scored
as intact, disrupted, or absent.Main outcome measuresComparing the retinal
sensitivity on the MAIA with various measurements on the SD-OCT.ResultsThe
retinal sensitivity on the MAIA showed a significant correlation with total
retinal thickness and outer retinal thickness on the SD-OCT. There was no
association with either the inner retinal thickness or the choroidal thickness.
ORT showed a statistically significant correlation with the anatomical
classification of ELM (r=-0.76, P<0.001), IS/OS (r=-0.800, P<0.001), and COST
(r=-0.733, P<0.001).ConclusionThis study determined that there was a high
correlation of the structure and function of the central macula in patients with 
RP. These studies are important to establish surrogate markers that can be used
as end points for various tests in future therapeutic clinical trials.Eye advance
online publication, 8 May 2015; doi:10.1038/eye.2015.61.

PMID: 25952950   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

13. Eye (Lond). 2015 May 8. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.62. [Epub ahead of print]

Anti-inflammatory effects of hinokitiol on human corneal epithelial cells: an in 
vitro study.

Ye J(1), Xu YF(1), Lou LX(1), Jin K(1), Miao Q(1), Ye X(1), Xi Y(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang
University, College of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

PurposeThis study assessed the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of action
of hinokitiol in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells.MethodsHCE cells were
incubated with different concentrations of hinokitiol or dimethylsulfoxide
(DMSO), which served as a vehicle control. Cell viability was evaluated using
Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. After polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid 
(poly(I:C)) stimulus, cells with or without hinokitiol were evaluated for the
mRNA and protein levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and
interleukin-1β (IL-1β) using real-time PCR analysis and an enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Nuclear and cytoplasmic levels of
nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 protein and an inhibitor of NF-κB α (IκBα)
were evaluated using western blotting.ResultsThere were no significant
differences among the treatment concentrations of hinokitiol compared with cells 
incubated in medium only. Incubating with 100 μM hinokitiol significantly
decreased the mRNA levels of IL-8 to 58.77±10.41% (P<0.01), IL-6 to 64.64±12.71% 
(P<0.01), and IL-1β to 54.19±8.10% (P<0.01) compared with cells stimulated with
poly(I:C) alone. The protein levels of IL-8, IL-6, and IL-1β had similar trend.
Further analysis revealed that hinokitiol maintained the levels of IκBα and
significantly reduced NF-κB p65 subunit translocation to the nucleus which
significantly inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB signal
pathway.ConclusionHinokitiol showed a significant protective effect against
ocular surface inflammation through inhibiting the NF-κB pathway, which may
indicate the possibility to relieve the ocular surface inflammation of dry eye
syndrome (DES).Eye advance online publication, 8 May 2015;

PMID: 25952949   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

14. Eye (Lond). 2015 May 1. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.60. [Epub ahead of print]

The Eye Phone Study: reliability and accuracy of assessing Snellen visual acuity 
using smartphone technology.

Perera C(1), Chakrabarti R(2), Islam FM(3), Crowston J(4).

Author information: 
(1)1] Journal of Mobile Technology in Medicine [2] Department of Ophthalmology,
Fremantle Hospital, Western Australia, Australia. (2)1] Journal of Mobile
Technology in Medicine [2] Department of Ophthalmology, Centre for Eye Research
Australia, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. (3)1] Department of
Ophthalmology, Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne,
Victoria, Australia [2] Department of Psychological Sciences and Statistics,
Faculty of Health, Arts and Design, Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria,
Australia. (4)Department of Ophthalmology, Centre for Eye Research Australia,
University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

PurposeSmartphone-based Snellen visual acuity charts has become popularized;
however, their accuracy has not been established. This study aimed to evaluate
the equivalence of a smartphone-based visual acuity chart with a standard 6-m
Snellen visual acuity (6SVA) chart.MethodsFirst, a review of available Snellen
chart applications on iPhone was performed to determine the most accurate
application based on optotype size. Subsequently, a prospective comparative study
was performed by measuring conventional 6SVA and then iPhone visual acuity using 
the 'Snellen' application on an Apple iPhone 4.ResultsEleven applications were
identified, with accuracy of optotype size ranging from 4.4-39.9%. Eighty-eight
patients from general medical and surgical wards in a tertiary hospital took part
in the second part of the study. The mean difference in logMAR visual acuity
between the two charts was 0.02 logMAR (95% limit of agreement -0.332, 0.372
logMAR). The largest mean difference in logMAR acuity was noted in the subgroup
of patients with 6SVA worse than 6/18 (n=5), who had a mean difference of two
Snellen visual acuity lines between the charts (0.276 logMAR).ConclusionWe did
not identify a Snellen visual acuity app at the time of study, which could
predict a patients standard Snellen visual acuity within one line. There was
considerable variability in the optotype accuracy of apps. Further validation is 
required for assessment of acuity in patients with severe vision impairment.Eye
advance online publication, 1 May 2015; doi:10.1038/eye.2015.60.

PMID: 25931170   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

15. Eye (Lond). 2015 May 1. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.45. [Epub ahead of print]

Topiramate maculopathy secondary to dose titration: first reported case.

Severn PS(1), Symes R(1), Rajendram R(1), Pal B(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Medical Retina, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK.

PMID: 25931169   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

16. Eye (Lond). 2015 May 1. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.56. [Epub ahead of print]

Chorio-retinal thickness measurements in patients with acromegaly.

Cheong KX(1), Tan CS(2).

Author information: 
(1)National Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore,
Singapore. (2)1] National Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital,
Singapore, Singapore [2] Fundus Image Reading Center, National Healthcare Group
Eye Institute, Singapore, Singapore.

PMID: 25931168   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

17. Eye (Lond). 2015 May 1. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.46. [Epub ahead of print]

Vitreoretinal surgery for shotgun eye injuries: outcomes and complications.

Khoueir Z(1), Cherfan G(1), Assi A(2).

Author information: 
(1)Beirut Eye Specialist Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon. (2)1] Beirut Eye Specialist
Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon [2] Beirut Eye Clinic, Beirut, Lebanon.

PurposeTo analyse the postoperative anatomic and functional outcomes in addition 
to complications after vitreoretinal surgery for patients with shotgun eye
injuries related to hunting accidents.MaterialsRetrospective review of the
clinical records of all cases of shotgun eye injuries presented between January
2000 and January 2011 and with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Collection of
demographics, type of injury, choice of management, complications and final
surgical success with final visual acuity is reported.ResultsTwenty eyes of 19
patients (all male) with a mean age of 36.1 years (range 16-60 years) were
included in the study. Mean postoperative follow-up was 47.5 months (range 15-118
months). Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at presentation ranged from
perception of light to 20/200. Ten eyes had a penetrating injury and 10 others
had a perforating injury. All the eyes underwent an initial vitrectomy and the
intraocular pellet was removed in all the 10 penetrating injuries. Concurrent
cataract surgery was performed in 12 cases, internal tamponade was used in 15
cases and a supplemental encircling scleral buckle was inserted in 12 cases. One 
additional vitreoretinal surgery was required in seven cases (35%) and two
additional surgeries required in two other cases (10%). At last follow-up BCVA
ranged from NPL to 20/20 and was 20/100 or better in 10 eyes (50%). All patients 
had a flat retina except for two cases (10%) that developed severe proliferative 
vitreoretinopathy.ConclusionThese results suggest that vitreoretinal surgery can 
offer good visual rehabilitation in patients with shotgun eye injuries.Eye
advance online publication, 1 May 2015; doi:10.1038/eye.2015.46.

PMID: 25931167   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

18. Eye (Lond). 2015 May 1. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.63. [Epub ahead of print]

Keratoconus: an inflammatory disorder?

Galvis V(1), Sherwin T(2), Tello A(1), Merayo J(3), Barrera R(4), Acera A(5).

Author information: 
(1)1] Centro Oftalmologico Virgilio Galvis, Floridablanca, Colombia [2] Faculty
of Health Sciences, Universidad Autonoma de Bucaramanga, Floridablanca, Colombia.
(2)Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Department of Ophthalmology, New
Zealand National Eye Centre, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
(3)Instituto Oftalmologico Fernandez-Vega, Oviedo, Spain. (4)Centro Oftalmologico
Virgilio Galvis, Floridablanca, Colombia. (5)Bioftalmik Applied Research, Derio, 

Keratoconus has been classically defined as a progressive, non-inflammatory
condition, which produces a thinning and steepening of the cornea. Its
pathophysiological mechanisms have been investigated for a long time. Both
genetic and environmental factors have been associated with the disease. Recent
studies have shown a significant role of proteolytic enzymes, cytokines, and free
radicals; therefore, although keratoconus does not meet all the classic criteria 
for an inflammatory disease, the lack of inflammation has been questioned. The
majority of studies in the tears of patients with keratoconus have found
increased levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and
matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. Eye rubbing, a proven risk factor for
keratoconus, has been also shown recently to increase the tear levels of MMP-13, 
IL-6, and TNF-α. In the tear fluid of patients with ocular rosacea, IL-1α and
MMP-9 have been reported to be significantly elevated, and cases of inferior
corneal thinning, resembling keratoconus, have been reported. We performed a
literature review of published biochemical changes in keratoconus that would
support that this could be, at least in part, an inflammatory condition.Eye
advance online publication, 1 May 2015; doi:10.1038/eye.2015.63.

PMID: 25931166   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

19. Eye (Lond). 2015 Apr 24. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.59. [Epub ahead of print]

Effect of cooling proparacaine 0.5% eye drops on patient's comfort during

Hu Youwei J(1), Chang B(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Ophthalmology, Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.

PMID: 25907208   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

20. Eye (Lond). 2015 Apr 24. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.57. [Epub ahead of print]

Prevalence of gonococcal conjunctivitis in adults and neonates.

McAnena L(1), Knowles SJ(2), Curry A(3), Cassidy L(1).

Author information: 
(1)Department of Ophthalmology, Royal Victoria Eye and Ear Hospital, Dublin,
Ireland. (2)Department of Microbiology, Royal Victoria Eye and Ear Hospital,
National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. (3)Department of Microbiology,
National Maternity Hospital, Holles St, Dublin, Ireland.

PurposeTo report the prevalence of gonococcal conjunctivitis (GC) presenting to a
tertiary referral maternity hospital (NMH) and a tertiary referral ophthalmic
hospital (RVEEH) from 2011 to 2013 and describe the demographics, clinical
presentation, and antibiotic susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae ocular
infections.MethodsDemographic, clinical, and microbiological data were collected 
from patients with laboratory confirmed GC.ResultsThere were 27 556 live births
at NMH during the study period, and no case of neonatal GC was identified.
Fourteen cases of GC were identified at RVEEH in this period, representing a
prevalence of 0.19 cases per 1000 eye emergency attendees. Antibiotic
susceptibility data were available on nine cases, of which, all were ceftriaxone-
and ciprofloxacin sensitive. 64.3% of patients were male, with a mean age of 18
years. The mean duration of symptoms was 3 days. All patients presented with
unilateral conjunctival injection and purulent discharge. Eight cases had visual 
impairment at presentation and their mean visual acuity was 6/15. Corneal
involvement was present in 25% of patients. Uveitis was not detected. On receipt 
of positive culture and/or PCR results, treatment was altered in two thirds of
patients. All patients were referred for full STI screening and all patients
showed a full clinical recovery 1 week posttreatment.ConclusionWe observed that
GC presented in young adults with a male predominance and was rare in neonates.
In cases of unilateral purulent conjunctivitis, there should be a high clinical
suspicion of GC, early swab for PCR and culture, and knowledge of current
CDC-recommended antibiotic guidelines.Eye advance online publication, 24 April
2015; doi:10.1038/eye.2015.57.

PMID: 25907207   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

21. Eye (Lond). 2015 May;29(5):602-10. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.44. Epub 2015 Apr 24.

The diagnostic accuracy of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for
neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a comparison with fundus
fluorescein angiography.

Wilde C(1), Patel M(2), Lakshmanan A(3), Amankwah R(3), Dhar-Munshi S(3), Amoaku 
W(1); Medscape.

Author information: 
(1)Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, B
Floor, EENT Centre, Queen's Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham,
UK. (2)Ophthalmology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby, UK. (3)Eye
Clinic, Sherwood Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield, UK.

PurposeTo evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of spectral-domain optical coherence
tomography (SD-OCT) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD): a
comparison against fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA).MethodsA retrospective
review of SD-OCT, colour fundus photographs (FP), and FFA of 411 consecutive
patients referred to a rapid access Macular Clinic over a 4-year period was
performed. FFA images were reviewed nonstereoscopically. SD-OCT images were
acquired using the Topcon 3D OCT-1000 instrument. All FFA and OCT images were
graded by at least two ophthalmologists independently. Side-by-side grading took 
place with immediate open discussion and adjudication. If there was disagreement 
between the two grading ophthalmologists or they were not 90% confident of their 
assigned grade, then adjudication by a third ophthalmologist was
performed.ResultsA total of 278 eyes were graded as having choroidal
neovascularisation (CNV) with SD-OCT and 231 diagnosed with FFA. The main
diagnostic CNV classifications on FFA were: classic no occult in 27 eyes,
predominantly classic in 16, minimally classic in 50, occult in 129, and 9
peripapillary membranes. There were a total of 47 false positives with SD-OCT: a 
rate of 16.9%. The sensitivity and specificity of SD-OCT alone for detecting CNV 
was 100 and 80.8%, respectively.ConclusionOur study confirms SD-OCT in comparison
to the reference standard of nonstereoscopic FFA is highly sensitive at detecting
newly presenting nAMD in the setting of a specialist AMD clinic where the
investigations are interpreted by trained specialists. However, it does not seem 
accurate enough to replace FFA in the diagnosis on nAMD in current practice.

PMID: 25907206   [PubMed - in process]