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Am Jour Ophthalmol
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Ophthalmic Epidemiol
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Ophthalmic Epidemiol[JOUR] Established 1995
1. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2015 Oct;22(5):357. doi: 10.3109/09286586.2015.1091264.


[No authors listed]

PMID: 26395663   [PubMed - in process]

2. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2015 Oct;22(5):356. doi: 10.3109/09286586.2015.1094295.

Special Issues on Trachoma.

[No authors listed]

PMID: 26395662   [PubMed - in process]

3. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2015 Oct;22(5):349-55. doi: 10.3109/09286586.2015.1066394.

A Simple Method for Estimating the Economic Cost of Productivity Loss Due to
Blindness and Moderate to Severe Visual Impairment.

Eckert KA(1), Carter MJ(1), Lansingh VC(2), Wilson DA(3), Furtado JM(4), Frick
KD(5), Resnikoff S(3).

Author information: 
(1)a Strategic Solutions, Inc. , Cody , WY , USA . (2)b International Agency for 
the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB) Latin America , Queretaro , Mexico . (3)c
Brien Holden Vision Institute (BHVI), University of New South Wales , Sydney ,
New South Wales , Australia . (4)d Department of Ophthalmology ,
Otorhinolaryngology, and Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine of Ribeirão
Preto, University of São Paulo , Ribeirão Preto , São Paulo , Brazil , and. (5)e 
Johns Hopkins Carey Business School , Baltimore , MD , USA.

PURPOSE: To estimate the annual loss of productivity from blindness and moderate 
to severe visual impairment (MSVI) using simple models (analogous to how a rapid 
assessment model relates to a comprehensive model) based on minimum wage (MW) and
gross national income (GNI) per capita (US$, 2011).
METHODS: Cost of blindness (COB) was calculated for the age group ≥50 years in
nine sample countries by assuming the loss of current MW and loss of GNI per
capita. It was assumed that all individuals work until 65 years old and that half
of visual impairment prevalent in the ≥50 years age group is prevalent in the
50-64 years age group. For cost of MSVI (COMSVI), individual wage and GNI loss of
30% was assumed. Results were compared with the values of the uncorrected
refractive error (URE) model of productivity loss.
RESULTS: COB (MW method) ranged from $0.1 billion in Honduras to $2.5 billion in 
the United States, and COMSVI ranged from $0.1 billion in Honduras to $5.3
billion in the US. COB (GNI method) ranged from $0.1 million in Honduras to $7.8 
billion in the US, and COMSVI ranged from $0.1 billion in Honduras to $16.5
billion in the US. Most GNI method values were near equivalent to those of the
URE model.
CONCLUSION: Although most people with blindness and MSVI live in developing
countries, the highest productivity losses are in high income countries. The
global economy could improve if eye care were made more accessible and more
affordable to all.

PMID: 26395661   [PubMed - in process]

4. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2015 Oct;22(5):333-41. doi: 10.3109/09286586.2015.1077259.

Poverty and Blindness in Nigeria: Results from the National Survey of Blindness
and Visual Impairment.

Tafida A(1), Kyari F(2), Abdull MM(3), Sivasubramaniam S(4), Murthy GV(4), Kana
I(5), Gilbert CE(4); Nigeria National Survey of Blindness and Visual Impairment
Study Group.

Author information: 
(1)a Department of Ophthalmology , Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital , Kano , Nigeria 
. (2)b College of Health Sciences, University of Abuja , Nigeria . (3)c
Ophthalmology Department , Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital , 
Bauchi , Nigeria . (4)d International Centre for Eye Health, Department of
Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK ,
and. (5)e Office of the Permanent Secretary, Federal Ministry of Health , Abuja ,

PURPOSE: Poverty can be a cause and consequence of blindness. Some causes only
affect the poorest communities (e.g. trachoma), and poor individuals are less
likely to access services. In low income countries, cataract blind adults have
been shown to be less economically active, indicating that blindness can
exacerbate poverty. This study aims to explore associations between poverty and
blindness using national survey data from Nigeria.
METHODS: Participants ≥40 years were examined in 305 clusters (2005-2007).
Sociodemographic information, including literacy and occupation, was obtained by 
interview. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) was assessed using a reduced tumbling E
LogMAR chart. Full ocular examination was undertaken by experienced
ophthalmologists on all with PVA <6/12 in either eye. Causes of vision loss were 
determined using World Health Organization guidelines. Households were
categorized into three levels of poverty based on literacy and occupation at
household level.
RESULTS: A total of 569/13,591 participants were blind (PVA <3/60, better eye;
prevalence 4.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.8-4.6%). Prevalences of blindness
were 8.5% (95% CI 7.7-9.5%), 2.5% (95% CI 2.0-3.1%), and 1.5% (95% CI 1.2-2.0%)
in poorest, medium and affluent households, respectively (p = 0.001).
Cause-specific prevalences of blindness from cataract, glaucoma, uncorrected
aphakia and corneal opacities were significantly higher in poorer households.
Cataract surgical coverage was low (37.2%), being lowest in females in poor
households (25.3%). Spectacle coverage was 3 times lower in poor than affluent
households (2.4% vs. 7.5%).
CONCLUSION: In Nigeria, blindness is associated with poverty, in part reflecting 
lower access to services. Reducing avoidable causes will not be achieved unless
access to services improves, particularly for the poor and women.

PMID: 26395660   [PubMed - in process]

5. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2015 Oct;22(5):321-32. doi: 10.3109/09286586.2015.1066395.

Visual Impairment in White, Chinese, Black, and Hispanic Participants from the
Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Cohort.

Fisher DE(1), Shrager S(2), Shea SJ(3), Burke GL(4), Klein R(5), Wong TY(6,)(7), 
Klein BE(5), Cotch MF(1).

Author information: 
(1)a Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications , Intramural Research
Program, National Eye Institute (NEI), National Institutes of Health (NIH) ,
Bethesda , MD , USA . (2)b Department of Biostatistics , University of Washington
, Seattle , WA , USA . (3)c Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology , Columbia
University , New York , NY , USA . (4)d Division of Public Health Sciences , Wake
Forest School of Medicine , Winston-Salem , NC , USA . (5)e Department of
Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences , University of Wisconsin--Madison , Madison , 
WI , USA . (6)f Department of Ophthalmology , Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine,
National University of Singapore , Singapore , and. (7)g Singapore Eye Research
Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre , Singapore.

PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence of visual impairment and examine its
association with demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics in the
Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort.
METHODS: Visual acuity data were obtained from 6134 participants, aged 46-87
years at time of examination between 2002 and 2004 (mean age 64 years, 47.6%
male), from six communities in the United States. Visual impairment was defined
as presenting visual acuity 20/50 or worse in the better-seeing eye. Risk factors
were included in multivariable logistic regression models to determine their
impact on visual impairment for men and women in each racial/ethnic group.
RESULTS: Among all participants, 6.6% (n = 421) had visual impairment, including 
5.6% of men (n = 178) and 7.5% of women (n = 243). Prevalence of impairment
ranged from 4.2% (n = 52) and 6.0% (n = 77) in white men and women, respectively,
to 7.6% (n = 37) and 11.6% (n = 44) in Chinese men and women, respectively. Older
age was significantly associated with visual impairment in both men and women,
particularly in those with lower socioeconomic status, but the effects of
increasing age were more pronounced in men. Two-thirds of participants already
wore distance correction, and not unexpectedly, a lower prevalence of visual
impairment was seen in this group; however, 2.4% of men and 3.5% of women with
current distance correction had correctable visual impairment, most notably among
CONCLUSION: Even in the U.S. where prevalence of refractive correction is high,
both visual impairment and uncorrected refractive error represent current public 
health challenges.

PMID: 26395659   [PubMed - in process]

6. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2015 Oct;22(5):308-20. doi: 10.3109/09286586.2015.1056537.

Neighborhood Deprivation and Risk of Age-Related Eye Diseases: A Follow-up Study 
in Sweden.

Hamano T(1), Li X(2), Tanito M(3), Nabika T(1,)(4), Shiwaku K(1,)(5), Sundquist
J(2,)(6), Sundquist K(2,)(6).

Author information: 
(1)a Centre for Community-based Health Research and Education (COHRE),
Organization for the Promotion of Project Research, Shimane University , Izumo , 
Japan . (2)b Center for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University , Malmö ,
Sweden . (3)c Division of Ophthalmology , Matsue Red Cross Hospital , Matsue ,
Japan . (4)d Department of Functional Pathology , Shimane University School of
Medicine , Izumo , Japan . (5)e Department of Environmental and Preventive
Medicine , Shimane University School of Medicine , Izumo , Japan , and. (6)f
Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University School of Medicine ,
Stanford , CA , USA.

PURPOSE: To examine whether there is an association between neighborhood
deprivation and age-related eye diseases, particularly macular degeneration,
cataract, diabetes-related eye complications, and glaucoma.
METHODS: The study population comprised a nationwide sample of 2,060,887 men and 
2,250,851 women aged 40 years or older living in Sweden who were followed from 1 
January 2000 until the first hospitalization/outpatient registration for
age-related eye disease during the study period, death, emigration, or the end of
the study period on 31 December 2010. Multilevel logistic regression was used to 
estimate the association between neighborhood deprivation and age-related eye
RESULTS: In men, the odds ratio (OR) for age-related eye diseases for those
living in high-deprivation neighborhoods compared to those living in
low-deprivation neighborhoods remained significant after adjustment for potential
confounding factors (macular degeneration, OR 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 
1.03-1.12; cataract, OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.26-1.35; diabetes-related eye
complications, OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.30-1.43; glaucoma, OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06-1.15).
In women, similar patterns were observed (macular degeneration, OR 1.11, 95% CI
1.07-1.15; cataract, OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.31-1.40; diabetes-related eye
complications, OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.42-1.59; glaucoma, OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.08-1.17).
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that neighborhood deprivation is associated with 
age-related eye diseases in both men and women. These results implicate that
individual- as well as neighborhood-level factors are important for preventing
age-related eye diseases.

PMID: 26395658   [PubMed - in process]

7. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2015 Oct;22(5):297-307. doi: 10.3109/09286586.2015.1077977.

Equity and Blindness: Closing Evidence Gaps to Support Universal Eye Health.

Ramke J(1), Zwi AB(1), Palagyi A(2), Blignault I(3), Gilbert CE(4).

Author information: 
(1)a University of New South Wales, School of Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts
and Social Sciences , Sydney , New South Wales , Australia . (2)b The George
Institute for Global Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney , Sydney
, New South Wales , Australia . (3)c University of New South Wales, School of
Public Health and Community Medicine , Sydney , New South Wales , Australia ,
and. (4)d London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Clinical Research Unit,
Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases , London , UK.

PURPOSE: The World Health Organization Program for the Prevention of Blindness
adopted the principles of universal health coverage (UHC) in its latest plan,
Universal Eye Health: A Global Action Plan, 2014-2019. This plan builds on the
achievements of Vision 2020, which aimed to reduce the global prevalence of
avoidable blindness, and its unequal distribution, by the year 2020.
METHODS: We reviewed the literature on health equity and the generation and use
of evidence to promote equity, particularly in eye health. We describe the nature
and extent of the equity-focused evidence to support and inform eye health
programs on the path to universal eye health, and propose ways to improve the
collection and reporting of this evidence.
RESULTS: Blindness prevalence decreased in all regions of the world between 1990 
and 2010, albeit not at the same rate or to the same extent. In 2010, the
prevalence of blindness in West Africa (6.0%) remained 15 times higher than in
high-income regions (0.4%); within all regions, women had a higher prevalence of 
blindness than men. Beyond inter-regional and sex differences, there is little
comparable data on the distribution of blindness across social groups within
regions and countries, or on whether this distribution has changed over time.
Similarly, interventions known to address inequity in blindness are few, and
equity-relevant goals, targets and indicators for eye health programs are scarce.
CONCLUSION: Equity aims of eye health programs can benefit from the global
momentum towards achieving UHC, and the progress being made on collecting,
communicating and using equity-focused evidence.

PMID: 26395657   [PubMed - in process]

8. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2015 Oct;22(5):295-6. doi: 10.3109/09286586.2015.1066017.

Neighborhood Deprivation and Eye Diseases.

Yip JL(1), Stafford M(2).

Author information: 
(1)a Institute of Public Health , Department of Public Health and Primary Care , 
Cambridge , UK and. (2)b UCL, MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing , London , 

PMID: 26395656   [PubMed - in process]

9. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2015 Oct;22(5):293-4. doi: 10.3109/09286586.2015.1081250.

A Need for More Equity in Prevention of Blindness.

Blanchet K(1), Finger RP(2).

Author information: 
(1)a Global Health Department, Faculty of Public Health and Policy, London School
of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK and. (2)b Centre for Eye Research
Australia, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, University of Melbourne , East
Melbourne , Australia.

PMID: 26395655   [PubMed - in process]