Journal Contents

Am Jour Ophthalmol
Br J Ophthalmol
Can J Ophthalmol
J Cat Ref Surg
Curr Eye Res
Eur J Ophthalmol
J Glaucoma
JAMA Ophthalmol
Graefes Ophthalmol
Indian J Ophthalmol
Int Ophthalmol Clin
Invest Ophth Vis Sci
Jpn J Ophthalmol
Korean J Ophthal
J Neuroophthalmol
Ophthalmic Epidemiol
Ophthalmic Genet
Ophthal Plast Rec Surg
Ophthalmic Res
Surv Ophthalmol
Ophthalmology Review Journal
Curr Eye Res[JOUR] Established 1995
1. Curr Eye Res. 2015 Nov 18:1-3. [Epub ahead of print]

Dexamethasone Disodium Phosphate Penetration Into the Human Aqueous Humor After
Topical Application.

Cagini C(1), Cometa F(1), Torroni G(1), Pellegrino A(1), Pellegrino R(2),
Cavallini GM(3).

Author information: 
(1)a Department of Surgical and Biomedical Sciences , University of Perugia ,
Perugia , Italy. (2)b Department of Chemistry , University of Perugia , Perugia ,
Italy. (3)c Institute of Ophthalmology, University of Modena , Modena , Italy.

PURPOSE: To study the amount of steroids that is found in the aqueous humor after
topical administration of dexamethasone solution eye-drops and dexamethasone
suspension eye-drops.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred seventeen consecutive patients of both genders
18 years or older, candidates for cataract surgery were randomly assigned to one 
of three groups. Fifty-one patients (group A) received a single instillation of a
suspension containing tobramicin 0.3% mg/ml + dexamethasone 0.1% mg/ml; 56
patients (group B) received a single instillation of a solution containing
tobramicin 0.3% mg/ml + dexamethasone 0.1% mg/ml; 10 patients (group C), control 
group, did not receive any drops. Samples were taken immediately before surgery
from the anterior chamber and dexamethasone levels were measured using gas
chromatography/mass spectrometry.
RESULTS: The mean dexamethasone concentrations were 0.56 μM (min 0.00, max 3.25) 
in group A and 0.15 μM (min 0.00, max 2.93) in group B. Dexamethasone was not
detected in samples from group C.
CONCLUSIONS: Dexamethasone suspension gives concentrations of steroids in the
aqueous humor approximately three times higher than with dexamethasone solution

PMID: 26580978   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

2. Curr Eye Res. 2015 Nov 18:1-6. [Epub ahead of print]

Effects of Intravitreal Ranibizumab in the Treatment of Retinopathy of
Prematurity in Chinese Infants.

Yi Z(1), Su Y(1), Zhou Y(1), Zheng H(1), Ye M(1), Xu Y(1), Chen C(1).

Author information: 
(1)a Ophthalmic Center , Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University , Wuhan , Hubei
Province , China.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy associated with intravitreal ranibizumab in the
treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).
METHODS: A retrospective case series study. Infants diagnosed with Type 1 ROP, or
aggressive posterior ROP (AP-ROP) were enrolled in the study. All infants in the 
study received intravitreal ranibizumab (0.25 mg/0.025 ml) as the initial
treatment. Follow-up examinations were performed the day after treatment, then
weekly for 1 month, bi-monthly for two additional months, then monthly until
vascularization of zone III occurred. Additional treatments were initiated in
cases of disease recurrence.
RESULTS: Thirty-three premature infants (a total of 66 eyes) receiving
intravitreal ranibizumab were included. The mean birth weight was 1291 ± 211 g
(range: 650-1650 g) and the mean gestational age was 29.8 ± 1.6 weeks (range:
27.0-33.6 weeks). The mean gestational age at the time of the first injection was
35.8 ± 1.6 weeks (range: 32.7-38.4 weeks). The mean follow-up time was 12.9 ± 4.9
months (range: 6-22 months). Single injections were administered to 58 eyes
(87.9%), whereas eight eyes (12.1%) received additional treatments. Recurrence
was observed in eight eyes (12.1%), with a mean time to recurrence of 6.9 ± 1.8
weeks (range: 4-8 weeks).
CONCLUSION: Intravitreal ranibizumab is effective for the treatment of
retinopathy of prematurity, although a small amount of patients recurred.
Compared with intravitreal bevacizumab, a higher incidence and shorter time to
recurrence were observed after intravitreal ranibizumab treatment, thus longer
and more frequent follow-ups are needed.

PMID: 26580816   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

3. Curr Eye Res. 2015 Nov 18:1-6. [Epub ahead of print]

Change of Retinal Nerve Layer Thickness in Non-Arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic 
Neuropathy Revealed by Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

Han M(1), Zhao C(1), Han QH(1), Xie S(1), Li Y(1).

Author information: 
(1)a Clinical College of Ophthalmology , Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin Eye 
Hospital, Tianjin Key Lab of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tianjin Eye
Institute , Tianjin , China.

PURPOSE: To examine the changes of non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic
neuropathy (NAION) by serial morphometry using Fourier domain optical coherence
tomography (FD-OCT).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study in patients with newly diagnosed NAION
(n=33, all unilateral) and controls (n=75 unilateral NAION patients with full
contralateral eye vision) who underwent FD-OCT of the optic disk, optic nerve
head (ONH), and macula within 1 week of onset and again 1, 3, 6, and 12 months
later. The patients showed no improvement in vision during follow-up.
RESULTS: Within 1 week of onset, all NAION eyes exhibited severe ONH fiber
crowding and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) edema. Four had
subretinal fluid accumulation and 12 had posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) at
the optic disc surface. Ganglion cell complex (GCC) and RNFL thicknesses were
reduced at 1 and 3 months (p < 0.05), with no deterioration thereafter. Initial
RNFL/GCC contraction magnitude in the superior hemisphere correlated with the
severity of inferior visual field deficits.
CONCLUSIONS: NAION progression is characterized by an initial phase of
accelerated RNFL and GCC deterioration. These results reveal that the kinetic
change of neural retina in NAION and may have implication on the time window for 
treatment of NAION. FD-OCT is useful in the evaluation of NAION.

PMID: 26580572   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

4. Curr Eye Res. 2015 Nov 18:1-5. [Epub ahead of print]

Evaluation of the New "SAVE" Protocol in Diabetic Macular Edema Over the Course
of Anti-VEGF Treatment.

Reznicek L(1), Bolz M(2), Garip A(3), Kampik A(3), Kernt M(3), Mayer WJ(3).

Author information: 
(1)a Department of Ophthalmology , Technical University Munich , Munich ,
Germany. (2)b Department of Ophthalmology , AKH Linz , Linz , Austria. (3)c
Department of Ophthalmology , Ludwig-Maximilians-University , Munich , Germany.

BACKGROUND: To evaluate a recently established grading protocol for diabetic
macular edema (DME) over the course of intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment with
METHODS: Fluorescein angiography images and optical coherence tomography scans
before treatment and after 3 monthly applied intravitreal ranibizumab injections 
were retrospectively graded for each included study eye according to the recently
introduced "SAVE" grading protocol ("S"= subretinal fluid; "A"= "area of retinal 
thickening"; "V"="vitreo-retinal abnormalities"; "E"="etiology of leakage focal
versus non-focal") and correlated with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in
letters (lett).
RESULTS: Five of the 39 included study eyes had subretinal fluid ("S") before
treatment which resolved during treatment. BCVA of study eyes with an initial
retinal thickening smaller than one disc diameter ("A") was non-significantly
higher compared to patients with a retinal thickening greater than one disc
diameter (34.0 ± 17.9 lett versus 25.3 ± 13.3 lett, p=0.236) but became
significant during treatment (40.5 ± 10.0 lett versus 28.3 ± 13.1 lett, p=0.004).
No difference in BCVA was observed between patients with or without
vitreo-retinal abnormalities ("V") before and during therapy. BCVA in patients
with focal leakage ("E") was significantly higher than in patients with non-focal
leakage before (33.1 ± 12.3 lett versus 23.3 ± 13.3 lett, p=0.017) and during
(38.9 ± 10.9 lett versus 26.3 ± 12.6 lett, p=0.002) therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Applying the grading protocol "SAVE", focal leakage ("E") was the
only retrospectively observed parameter which significantly correlated with a
better BCVA before therapy and over the course of treatment in patients with
fovea-involving DME.

PMID: 26580417   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

5. Curr Eye Res. 2015 Nov 18:1-5. [Epub ahead of print]

Association of the Aldose Reductase-106TT Genotype with Increased Risk for
Diabetic Retinopathy in the Chinese Han Population: An Updated Meta-Analysis.

Song ZD(1), Tao Y(2), Han N(1), Wu YZ(1).

Author information: 
(1)a Department of Ophthalmology , No. 2 Hospital of Jilin University , Changchun
, China. (2)b Department of Anesthesiology , No. 3 Hospital of Jilin University ,
Changchun , China.

PURPOSE: A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effects of the aldose
reductase (ALR) C-106T polymorphism on the risk for development of diabetic
retinopathy (DR) in the Chinese population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant studies were identified using PubMed, Springer
Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National
Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM) through 21
March 2015. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used
to assess the strength of the associations.
RESULTS: This meta-analysis identified 11 studies, including 1386 DR cases, 1594 
diabetes mellitus (DM) control cases, and 472 healthy control cases. In the
overall analysis, a non-significant association between the ALR C(-106)T
polymorphism and DR was found in the Chinese population. In subgroups stratified 
by ethnicity, significantly increased risks for DR in association with ALR
C(-106)T variants were found in the Chinese Han population. When compared with
healthy controls, we found the following associations: T versus C (OR, 1.63;
95%CI, 1.23-2.17), TT versus CC (OR, 2.04; 95%CI, 1.03-4.02), and TT + CT versus 
CC (OR, 1.82; 95%CI, 1.28-2.57).
CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis showed that ALR C-106T variants appear to
influence the risk for DR in Chinese Han persons. Studies with larger sample
sizes and wider population spectra are warranted to verify this finding.

PMID: 26580232   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

6. Curr Eye Res. 2015 Nov 18:1-7. [Epub ahead of print]

Vitreomacular Attachment Ultrastructure and Histopathological Correlation.

Breazzano MP(1), Fang H(2), Robinson MR(2), Abraham JL(3), Barker-Griffith

Author information: 
(1)a Department of Ophthalmology. (2)b Department of Ophthalmology , State
University of New York, Upstate Medical University , Syracuse , NY , USA. (3)c
Department of Pathology , State University of New York, Upstate Medical
University , Syracuse , NY , USA.

PURPOSE: The ultrastructural anatomy of the vitreomacular interface in young
human donor eyes and animal eyes is explored using scanning electron microscopy
(SEM) to determine its relationship with the formation of the perimacular ridge
from abusive head trauma, as well as macular hole formation, vitreomacular
traction syndrome, and preretinal hemorrhage.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: SEM is used to image the posterior poles of 23 human donor
eyes, as well as several cow, dog, monkey, pig, and rabbit eyes for vitreomacular
interface anatomy. We examined autopsy eyes from abusive head trauma
RESULTS: Two rings of thick, circumferential, vitreous attachment at the area
centralis are found. An inner ring at the fovea, R1, and an outer ring at the
perifoveal region, R2, are both observed in eyes from donors < 30 years of age;
comparatively, in eyes from donors > 30 years, only R2 is present (p<0.001). R2
is found with unique elliptical shape in Cynomolgus monkey. Macula, R1, and R2
are not detected in cow, dog, pig, or rabbit eyes.
CONCLUSIONS: The vitreomacular ring attachments found in donor eyes correspond
anatomically with the perimacular ridge found histopathologically in abusive head
trauma, and likely correlates with the macular hole, vitreomacular traction
syndrome, and preretinal hemorrhage. Vitreomacular interface anatomy in the
monkey, but not the cow, dog, pig, or rabbit, demonstrates some anatomical
similarity to that of the human, consistent with species differences regarding
the area centralis.

PMID: 26579635   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

7. Curr Eye Res. 2015 Nov 17:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]

Protective Effect of Rutin Against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in
Human Lens Epithelial Cells.

Zhou YF(1), Guo B(1), Ye MJ(1), Liao RF(1), Li SL(1).

Author information: 
(1)a Department of Ophthalmology , The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical
University , Hefei , Anhui , PR China.

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of rutin on oxidative
stress and apoptosis induced by H2O2 in human lens epithelial (HLE) cells and the
associated mechanisms involved.
METHODS: Cell viability was assessed by
4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and cell apoptosis
was determined by flow cytometry, TUNEL assay and DNA fragmentation assay after
24 h treatment of 100 μM H2O2 with or without rutin pretreatment at various
concentrations. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was examined using
2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate by flow cytometry. The activity of
superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by xanthinoxidase method and the contents
of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were quantified by enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay. The expression change of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 at mRNA
and protein levels were detected by real-time polymerized chain reaction (RT-PCR)
and Western-blot analysis, respectively. Activation and translocation of nuclear 
factor-kappaB (NF-кB/p65) were examined by Western blot and immunocytochemistry.
RESULTS: Rutin pretreatment protected HLE cells from H2O2-induced cell viability 
decrease and apoptosis. In addition, in the presence of rutin, H2O2-induced
intracellular excessive ROS and MDA were attenuated, whereas intracellular SOD
and GSH depletion were prevented. Moreover, rutin also inhibited the
up-regulation of caspase-3 and Bax expression and rescued down-regulation of
Bcl-2 expression. Lastly, rutin blocked the activation and translocation of
NF-кB/p65 induced by H2O2.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that rutin effectively protects HLE cells
from H2O2-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. The 
involved mechanisms may be related to the regulation of ROS production, the
inhabitation of lipid peroxidation, the protection of intracellular antioxidant
system and its modulation of Bcl-2/Bax family and NF-кB/p65 signaling pathway.

PMID: 26576853   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

8. Curr Eye Res. 2015 Nov 10:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]

Defining the Relationships Among Retinal Function, Layer Thickness and Visual
Behavior During Oxidative Stress-Induced Retinal Degeneration.

Patel AK(1), Akinsoji E(1), Hackam AS(1).

Author information: 
(1)a Bascom Palmer Eye Institute , University of Miami Miller School of Medicine 
, Miami , FL , USA.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify how changes in retinal
structure and function correlate with visual deficits during increasing amounts
of retinal degeneration.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retinal degeneration was induced in adult mice by
subretinal injections of paraquat (PQ) (0.2-1 mM). Retinal anatomy and
photoreceptor layer thickness were quantified by histology and optical coherence 
tomography (OCT), retinal function was measured using electroretinography (ERG), 
and visual behavior were measured by optokinetic tracking, at 1 to 3 week
RESULTS: Photoreceptor layer structure, function and visual behavior declined at 
a linear rate over time following PQ-induced degeneration, with the correlations 
between outcome measures being lowest at mild injury levels and increasing with
injury severity. Overall reductions in visual acuity were highly correlated with 
declines in retinal thickness (r(2) = 0.78) and function (r(2) = 0.67) and
retinal thickness correlated with photoreceptor function (r(2) = 0.72). ERG
a-wave scotopic amplitudes showed a stronger correspondence to retinal structure 
and visual behavior than b-waves.
CONCLUSIONS: Measurements of photoreceptor loss at the structural and functional 
levels showed good correspondence with degeneration-associated changes in visual 
behavior after oxidative stress injury. The results provide new insight about the
relative kinetics of measurements of retinal degeneration induced by oxidative
stress, which could guide the choice of optimal outcome measurements for other
retinal diseases.

PMID: 26554945   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

9. Curr Eye Res. 2015 Nov 10:1-6. [Epub ahead of print]

Evaluation of Adenovirus-Mediated Down-Regulation of Connective Tissue Growth
Factor on Postoperative Wound Healing After Experimental Glaucoma Surgery.

Lim DH(1), Kim TE(2), Kee C(1,)(2).

Author information: 
(1)a Department of Ophthalmology, Samsung Medical Center , Sungkyunkwan
University School of Medicine , Seoul. (2)b Center for Clinical Research ,
Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center , Seoul , Korea.

PURPOSE: This study was aimed to determine whether adenovirus-mediated
down-regulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) can modulate
postoperative scarring in a rabbit receiving simplified glaucoma surgery.
METHODS: In vitro studies were performed using a replication-deficient
recombinant adenovirus that transcribes a small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific 
to the CTGF gene under the control of the modified CMV promoter. Primary tenon
cells from a New Zealand White rabbit were transduced with 10-100 plaque-forming 
units (pfu) per cell of the viral vector. Seventy-two hours later, CTGF
expression was analyzed by Western blot analysis. In vivo studies were conducted 
using 10 New Zealand White rabbits, which underwent simplified glaucoma surgery
and received a postoperative subconjunctival injection of 5 µl suspension of
adenovirus carrying shRNA for CTGF (2 × 10(11) pfu/ml) in the right eye, and the 
same amount of null virus in the left eye. Eyes were enucleated 5 d after the
surgery, and immunohistochemical and histological examinations of the surgical
outcome were performed.
RESULTS: Western blot analysis showed that CTGF was depleted to less than 10% of 
its original level in cells transduced with the adenovirus expressing
CTGF-specific siRNA. This demonstrates RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated CTGF
inactivation in vitro. Immunohistochemical analysis also showed that CTGF was
significantly depleted in eyes transduced with the adenovirus expressing CTGF
siRNA. This demonstrates RNAi-mediated CTGF inactivation in vivo. In addition,
less scar tissue was observed on histological evaluation in the transduced eyes, 
demonstrating that inhibition of CTGF expression can modulate the wound healing
process after surgery.
CONCLUSIONS: Down-regulation of CTGF is effective in inhibiting postoperative
scarring in vivo. This suggests that RNAi with CTGF siRNA may potentially pave
the road for a novel therapeutic strategy to improve glaucoma surgery results.

PMID: 26554857   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

10. Curr Eye Res. 2015 Nov 10:1-7. [Epub ahead of print]

Evaluation of the Ocular Tolerance of Three Tacrolimus Topical Pharmaceutical
Preparations by Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability Test.

Pastor-Clerigues A(1,)(2), Serrano A(1,)(3), Milara J(1,)(2,)(3,)(4),
Marti-Bonmati E(1,)(2), Lopez-Perez FJ(2), Garcia-Montanes S(2), Sanfeliu J(2),
Saval-Victoria AC(2), Cortijo J(1,)(2,)(3,)(4,)(5).

Author information: 
(1)a Research Foundation of General Hospital of Valencia , Valencia , Spain. (2)b
Hospital Pharmacy , University General Hospital Consortium , Valencia , Spain.
(3)c CIBERES , Health Institute Carlos III , Valencia , Spain. (4)d Clinical
Research Unit (UIC) , University General Hospital Consortium , Valencia , Spain. 
(5)e Department of Pharmacology , Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia ,
Valencia , Spain.

PURPOSE: Tacrolimus ocular preparations are commonly employed in autoimmune or
inflammatory ocular disorders. However, currently there are not yet approved
ocular formulations. Tacrolimus ocular side effects have been reported in
clinical use, so the evaluation of different pharmaceutical preparations is
mandatory. In this study, the local corneal tolerance and safety profile of three
common tacrolimus 0.03% pharmaceutical preparations were evaluated.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Corneal irritation and permeability of tacrolimus
preparations were evaluated with the bovine corneal opacity and permeability
(BCOP) test. Complementary corneal hematoxylin/eosin and immunohistochemistry
staining for tight junctions and adherent junctions E-cadherin, VE-cadherin and
zonula occludens-1 were examined and scored to evaluate and to confirm corneal
disruption and irritation scores obtained with the BCOP method.
RESULTS: Commercial brand ointment (Protopic®), topical compounded eye ointment
(pharmacy elaboration) and tacrolimus suspension eye drops (elaborated from
parenteral prograf®) were tested as potential ocular preparations to be used in
clinics. Tacrolimus preparations hereby studied do not alter the opacity and
permeability of the bovine cornea by more than three units, measured by the In
Vitro Irritancy Score, neither affected the immunohistochemical parameters,
composite score or transepithelial electrical resistance.
CONCLUSIONS: Tacrolimus preparations studied can be safely applied as a topical
ocular treatment.

PMID: 26554729   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

11. Curr Eye Res. 2015 Nov 10:1-6. [Epub ahead of print]

Evaluation of Changes in Human Corneas After Femtosecond Laser-Assisted LASIK and
Small-Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE) Using Non-Contact Tonometry and
Ultra-High-Speed Camera (Corvis ST).

Sefat SM(1), Wiltfang R(1), Bechmann M(1), Mayer WJ(2), Kampik A(2), Kook D(2).

Author information: 
(1)a Smile Eyes Private Eye Clinic , Munich , Germany. (2)b Department of
Ophthalmology , Ludwig-Maximilians University , Munich , Germany.

PURPOSE: To evaluate theoretical biomechanical advantages of human corneas
treated with small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) compared with
femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK (FS-LASIK) Patients and methods: In a
prospective, comparative, non-randomized, consecutive case series patients with
moderate to high myopia and/or astigmatism underwent corneal refractive surgery. 
Patients either received standard FS-LASIK or SMILE. Preoperatively and up to 3
months postoperatively data were analyzed including tomography with Pentacam HR, 
Goldmann tonometry, non-contact tonometry, and deformability of the cornea using 
an ultra-high-speed camera (Corvis ST). Data were analyzed and p < 0.05 was
considered as statistically significant (t-test).
RESULTS: Seventy-three patients (128 eyes) were treated. Forty-eight eyes of 29
patients underwent FS-LASIK and 80 eyes of 44 patients underwent SMILE.
Preoperative spherical equivalent (SE) was -3.23 ± 1.64 D (FS-LASIK group) and
-4.83 ± 1.63 D (SMILE group) (p < 0.0001). Almost all parameters obtained by
Corvis ST between preoperative and postoperative measurements showed significant 
changes after refractive surgery. Significant changes were seen between both
groups postoperatively. However, matched pair subgroup analysis (n = 69; 26 eyes 
FS-LASIK; 43 eyes SMILE) of eyes with initially equal pachymetry, intraocular
pressure, SE, and difference of pre- to postoperative pachymetry (p>0.05), showed
no significant changes in parameters measured with Corvis ST (p>0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Corneal biomechanical parameters measured preoperatively with Corvis
ST showed significant differences postoperatively in total and in both groups. In
subgroup analysis with homogenous groups, FS-LASIK showed no significant changes 
in biomechanical data measured with Corvis ST compared with SMILE.

PMID: 26554611   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

12. Curr Eye Res. 2015 Oct 29:1-6. [Epub ahead of print]

Blood-Flow Velocity in Glaucoma Patients Measured with the Retinal Function

Burgansky-Eliash Z(1,)(2), Bartov E(1,)(2), Barak A(2,)(3), Grinvald A(4), Gaton 

Author information: 
(1)a Department of Ophthalmology , The Edith Wolfson Medical Center , Holon ,
Israel. (2)b Sackler Faculty of Medicine , Tel Aviv University , Tel Aviv ,
Israel. (3)c Department of Ophthalmology , Tel-Aviv Medical Center , Tel Aviv ,
Israel. (4)d Department of Neurobiology , Weizmann Institute of Science , Rehovot
, Israel. (5)e Department of Ophthalmology, Rabin Medical Center , Petah Tikva , 

PURPOSE: Circulatory abnormalities in the retina, optic nerve and choroid have
been detected by various technologies in glaucoma patients. However, there is no 
clear understanding of the role of blood flow in glaucoma. The purpose of this
study was to compare retinal blood-flow velocities using the retinal function
imager (RFI) between glaucoma and healthy subjects.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-nine eyes of 46 patients with primary open-angle
glaucoma (POAG), 51 eyes of 31 healthy individuals and 28 eyes of 23 patients
with glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) but normal perimetry were recruited for 
this study. Three eyes of 2 patients in the glaucoma group and 2 eyes of 1
patient in the GON group had normal pressure at the time of diagnosis.
Eighty-three percent of the glaucoma patients and 73% of the patients in the GON 
group were treated with anti-glaucoma medications. All patients were scanned by
the RFI. Differences among groups were assessed by mixed linear models.
RESULTS: The average venous velocity in the GON group (3.8 mm/s) was
significantly faster than in the glaucoma (3.3 mm/s, p = 0.03) and healthy (3.0
mm/s, p = 0.005) groups. The arterial velocity in the GON group was not different
from any of the other study groups (4.7 mm/s). The arterial and venous velocity
in the POAG eyes was not different than in the healthy eyes (arterial: 4.3 versus
4.2 mm/s, p = 0.7; venous: 3.3 versus 3.0 mm/s, p = 0.3). A subgroup of 13
glaucoma patients who had perimetric glaucoma in 1 eye and normal visual field
(VF) in the fellow eye showed a trend of lower velocity in the glaucoma eyes.
CONCLUSIONS: Changes in retinal blood-flow velocity were detected only in the
pre-perimetric state, but not in perimetric glaucoma. These findings might
represent early dysregulation in the retinal vasculature.

PMID: 26513272   [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]